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Basic Properties of Matter by Dewey B Larson

Basic Properties of Matter by Dewey B Larson

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Published by: Jason Verbelli on Aug 11, 2011
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03/10/2013

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Basic Properties of Matter
DEWEY B. LARSON
 
Volume II of a revised and enlarged edition of THE STRUCTURE OF THE PHYSICAL UNIVERSE
 
Preface
THIS volume is the second in a series in which I am undertaking to developthe consequences that necessarily follow if it is postulated that the physicaluniverse is composed entirely of motion. The characteristics of the basicmotion were defined in
 Nothing But Motion,
the first volume of the series, inthe form of seven assumptions as to the nature and interrelation of space andtime. In the subsequent development, the necessary consequences of theseassumptions have been derived by logical and mathematical processeswithout the introduction of any supplementary or subsidiary assumptions,and without introducing anything from experience. Coincidentally with thistheoretical development, it has been shown that the conclusions thus reachedare consistent with the relevant data from observation and experiment,wherever a comparison can be made. This justifies the assertion that, to theextent to which the development has been carried, the theoretical resultsconstitute a true and accurate picture of the actual physical universe.In a theoretical development of this nature, starting from a postulate as to thefundamental nature of the universe, the first results of the deductive processnecessarily take the form of conclusions of a basic character: the structure of matter, the nature of electromagnetic radiation, etc. Inasmuch as these areitems that cannot be apprehended directly, it has been possible for previousinvestigators to formulate theories of an ad hoc nature in each individualfield to fit the limited, and mainly indirect, information that is available. Thebest that a
correct 
theory can do in any
one
of these individual areas is toarrive at results that
also agree
with the available empirical information. It isnot possible, therefore, to grasp the full significance of the new developmentunless it is recognized that the new theoretical system, the ReciprocalSystem, as we call it, is one of 
general 
application, one that reaches
all 
of its
 
conclusions
all 
physical fields by deduction from the
same
set of basicpremises.Experience has indicated that it is difficult for most individuals to get abroad enough view of the fundamentals of the many different branches of physical science for a full appreciation of the unitary character of this newsystem. However, as the deductive development is continued, it graduallyextends down into the more familiar areas, where the empirical informationis more readily available, and less subject to arbitrary adjustment orinterpretation to fit the prevailing theories. Thus the farther the developmentof this new general physical theory is carried, the more evident its validitybecomes. This is particularly true where, as in the subject matter treated inthis present volume, the theoretical deductions provide both explanationsand numerical values in areas where neither is available from conventionalsources.There has been an interval of eight years between the publication of VolumeI and the first complete edition of this second volume in the series. Inasmuchas the investigation whose results are here being reported is an ongoingactivity, a great deal of new information has been accumulated in themeantime. Some of this extends or clarifies portions of the subject matter of the first volume, and since the new findings have been taken into account indealing with the topics covered in this volume, it has been necessary todiscuss the relevant aspects of these findings in this volume, even thoughsome of them may seem out of place. If, and when, a revision of the firstvolume is undertaken, this material will be transferred to Volume I.The first 11 chapters of this volume were published in the form of reproductions of the manuscript pages in 1980. Publication of the firstcomplete edition has been made possible through the efforts of a group of members of the International Society of Unified Science, including RainerHuck, who handled the financing, Phil Porter, who arranged for the printing,Eden Muir, who prepared the illustrations, and Jan Sammer, who was incharge of the project.
 D. B. Larson December 1987 
 
 
CHAPTER 1
Solid Cohesion
The consequences of the reversal of direction (in the context of a fixedreference system) that takes place at unit distance were explained in ageneral way inChapter 8of Volume I. As brought out there, the mostsignificant of these consequences is that establishment of an equilibriumbetween gravitation and the progression of the natural reference systembecomes possible.
There is a location
outside
unit distance where the magnitudes of these twomotions are equal: the distance that we are calling the gravitational limit. Butthis point of equality is not a point of equilibrium. On the contrary, it is a point of instability. If there is even a slight unbalance of forces one way or the other, the resulting motion accentuates the unbalance. A small inwardmovement, for instance, strengthens the inward force of gravitation, andthereby causes still further movement in the same direction. Similarly, if asmall outward movement occurs, this weakens the gravitational force andcauses further outward movement. Thus, even though the inward andoutward motions are equal at the gravitational limit, this is actually nothing but a point of demarcation between inward and outward motion. It is not a point of equilibrium.
 
In the region
inside
unit distance, on the contrary, the effect of any change in position opposes the unbalanced forces that produced the change. If there isan excess gravitational force, an outward motion occurs which weakensgravitation and eliminates the unbalance. If the gravitational force is notadequate to maintain a balance, an inward motion takes place. This increasesthe gravitational effect and restores the equilibrium. Unless there is someintervention by external forces, atoms move gravitationally until theyeventually come within unit distance of other atoms. Equilibrium is thenestablished at positions within this inside region: the time region, as we havecalled it.
 
The condition in which a number of atoms occupy equilibrium positions of this kind in an aggregate is known as the
 solid state
of matter. The distance between such positions is the
inter-atomic
distance, a distinctive feature of each particular material substance that we will examine in detail in thefollowing chapter. Displacement of the equilibrium in either direction can be

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