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Logic Gates

# Logic Gates

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This is a course in Digital Electronics for Colleges. The present Chapter concern Logic Gates. The funtioning of various logic gates is explaned. Many exercises with solution are provided. The Cwhapter end with some review questions. I will provide solutions for those review quetions very soon: For any question: jngoune@yahoo.fr.
This is a course in Digital Electronics for Colleges. The present Chapter concern Logic Gates. The funtioning of various logic gates is explaned. Many exercises with solution are provided. The Cwhapter end with some review questions. I will provide solutions for those review quetions very soon: For any question: jngoune@yahoo.fr.

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07/21/2013

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Digital Electronics_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
1
Courses InElectricalEngineering
Volume IIDIGITAL ELECTRONICSCHAPTER TWO : LOGIC GATES
By
J-P. NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics) DEA (Electrical Engineering)Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.

Digital Electronics_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
2
Chapter Two
LOGIC GATES
2.0 Specific objectives:
At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to:- Understand the functioning of the logic gates;- Draw the truth table of simple logic circuits;- Know logic voltage levels for TTL and CMOS technologies;- Design a simple logic circuit using logic gates.
2.1 Introduction:
Logic gates are

elementary bricks
used in the construction of digital circuits.While the binary numeration system studied in the precedent chapter was aninteresting mathematical abstraction, we have not yet seen its practical application toelectronics. This chapter is devoted to practically apply the concept of binary digits tocircuits. A logic gate is a special type of circuit designed to accept (inputs) andgenerate (outputs)voltages signals corresponding to binary digits (1 and 0).
2.2 Digital signals and gates:
Let us consider the following circuit:
SRLED
Vcc10
Figure 2.1: Logic circuit.

Digital Electronics_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
3
When the switch is connected to the ground (0V), the light emitting diode(LED) does not shine. If we were using this circuit to represent binary digits, wewould say that the input signal is a binary

and that the output is a binary

or thattheoutput is at the low logic level. Moving the switch to the other position (Vcc), weapply a binary

to the input and receive a binary

at the output. The output isalso said to be at thehigh logic level.The gate shown by this simple circuit is a
buffer
or
yes
gate, because thelogic state of its input is identical to that of its output. Many types of gates are used indigital electronics:single input gateslike the buffer and the NOT gates;multiple inputs gateslike AND, NAND, OR, NOR, and XOR gates. The aim of this chapter isto study the functioning of each of those logic gates and also how they can becombined to design a simple logic function.
2.3 The NOT gate:
The NOT gate or Inverter is a logic gate which functions in such a way that thelogic state of the output isexactly the oppositeof that of the input.
Remark 2.1: The truth table
A truth table is a standard way of representing theInputs/outputsrelationshipsof a digital circuit, listing all the possible input logic level combinations with theirrespective output logic levels.
The NOT gate truth table:
Input Output0 11 0
Symbol
Input Output
Remark 2.2: the buffer gate
If we were to connect two inverter gates together so that the output of one fedinto the input of another, the two inversion functions would
cancel
each other out sothat there would be no inversion from input to final output.