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INDIA Geography

INDIA Geography

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Published by vishwanath

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Published by: vishwanath on Aug 13, 2011
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UNIT IChapter 1INDIA - POSITION
Learning Objectives
To know the location and position of India.To identifyIndia as a subcontinent.To understand the administrative divisions of India.To appreciate the unity in diversity of India.To identify and locate the state and union territory with their capitals.“India is a country of great geographical extent. Its size is so vast that itis often described as a subcontinent. Like a giant, it sprawls between thesnowy height of the Himalayas and the shores of the Indian Ocean, whichwashes the land for thousands of Kilometres from Bengal to Kutch. The landstretches on all sides encompassing the vast expansion of the northern plains,the thirstysands of the Thar in the west, the intricate maze of Indo-Myanmarhills on the east, the uneven plateau surface, the ancient hills and the coconutbearing coastal plains on the south, and the lofty snowcapped mountains onthe north. The land gets abundance of sunshine from the tropical sun andsplashing rains from the monsoons - the two elements together exerting atremendous impact on the diversity of its teeming millions. This is India, thedispenser of our destiny - a destiny having a remarkable continuity, defyingtime and still changing like the patterns in a Kaleidoscope”.
Location and Extent
India is situated in the southern part of Asia. It covers an area of 3.2million sq.kms, which occupies 2.5% of the world’s land area. It extendsbetween 8°4’ North and 37°6’ North latitude and between 68°7’ East and97°25’ East longitude. It stretches from Kashmir in the north to Kanyakumariin the south for 3214 kms and from Gujarat in the west toArunachal Pradesh
 
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3in the east for 2933 kms. The Tropic of Cancer 23½° North runs across thecountry and divides it into two equal halves. Obviously, India is the seventhlargest country with respect to area. It is four times bigger than Pakistan andthreetimessmallerthanUSA.ThusIndiais“neitherapigmynoragiantamongthe nations of the world”.
Position and Relation
India has a predominant position in the Indian Ocean realm. No othercountry has such a large coast line. The Deccan Peninsula projects itself intothe Indian Ocean thus making it possible for India to look both ways -towards Africa and Europe from its western coast and towards South EastAsia and the Far East from its eastern coast. The tapering topographyof landfavoursmonsoonal climateto promoteagriculturalactivities.India’sposition isfavourable for trade, commerce and economic activities by connecting Indiawith Europe through Suez Canal and also with China, Japan andAustraliathrough Malaccan strait.
India and its boundaries
The countries which border India are Bhutan, Nepal and China in thenorth, Pakistan andAfganistan in the west and Bangladesh and Myanmar inthe east. Palk strait separates India and Srilanka in the south. Himalayas alongwith Hindukush and Karakoram provide a natural boundary in the north.Pakistan in the west and Bangladesh in the east are manmade boundariesdemarcated bymutual agreements. The Islands ofAndaman and Nicobar andLakshadweep are the parts of Indian Union situated in Bay of Bengal andArabian sea respectively.
India - a sub continent
A continent has varied characteristics of diversed physical features,climatic conditions, natural vegetation, mineral resources, human habitation,culturalnormsandancientethnicandlinguisticgroups,etc.Allthesedistinctivecharacteristics are found in India. Hence we consider India as a subcontinent.

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