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GENERAL STUDIES (TELUGU)

GENERAL STUDIES (TELUGU)

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Published by vishwanath

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Published by: vishwanath on Aug 13, 2011
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01/08/2014

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{ç   ³«§é¯é…Ô>Ë$:
4
{§éÐ]l×æ… °Æý‡Ó^è l¯] l…
4
{§éÐ]l×êÌZÏ° Æý ‡M>Ë$
4
{§éÐ]l×î æĶæ$™èl
4
V>Éý l™è l
4
¿êÆý ‡Ô>™è l…
4
ç  œ$¯] lç³ÇÐ] l*×æ Ô>™èl…
4
Ðð l¬ÌêÇsîæ
4
Ðð l*ÌŒæ¿êVýS…
4
±sì æÌZ ç  ³§éÆ>¦Ë AĶ æ$±MýSÆý‡×æ…
{§éÐ]l×æ… °Æý‡Ó^èl¯]  l…:
4
Æð ‡…yý l$ Ìô æ§é A…™èlMý S…sô æGMý S$PÐ] l ç  ³§éÆ>¦Ë ç  Ügê¡Ä¶æ$ Ñ${Ô¶ æÐ] l*°²  "{§éÐ]l×æ…' A…sêÆý ‡$.
E§é:
Eç  ³#µ {§éÐ] l×æ…, ^è lMðSPÆý ‡ {§éÐ]l×æ… Ðð l¬§ý lO  Ìñæ¯]lÑ.
{§éљ蠠l…:
4
{§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ Ýëõ³„ý S…V> ™è lMý S$PÐ] l ç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æ…ÌZ E¯] ç  ³§éÆ>¦°²  "{§éÑ™è l…' A…sêÆý ‡$.
{§éÐ]  l×ì æ:
4
{§éÐ] l×ìæÌZ Ýëõ³„ý S…V> GMý S$PÐ] l ç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æ…ÌZ E¯]l² ç  ³§éÆ>¦°²  "{§éÐ] l×ì æ' A…sêÆý ‡$. E§é: 2 {V>. M>ç  ³ÆŠ æç  ÜÌô æ¹sŒ æ¯] l$ 50 Ñ$.Î. ±sì æÌZ Mý SÇWõÜ¢HÆý ‡µyýlz {§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ {§éÑ™è l… M>ç  ³ÆŠ æçÜÌô æ¹sŒæ, {§éÐ] l×ìæ ±Æý ‡$.
4
A¯]l$çœ$rM>Ë$ çÜÐ]l*¯]l ç³ÇÐ]l*×æ…ÌZ E¯]l²ç   ³#yý  l$ Ðésìæ Ððl*ÌŒæçÜ…QÅ˯]l$ ÌñæMì SP…_ GMýS$PÐ]l Ððl*ÌŒæË$ E¯]l² A¯]  l$çœ$rM>°² {§éÐ]  l×ìæV>, ™è  lMýS$PÐ]l Ððl*ÌŒ  æË$ E¯]l² A¯]l$ç   œ$rM>°² {§éљ蠠l…V> ç   Ü*_Ýë¢Æý‡$.{§éÐ]  l×îæĶ  æ$™è  l
í  Ü¦Æý ‡ EÚù~{Vý S™è l Ð] l§ý 100 {V>. {§éÐ] l×ì æÌZ Mý SÇVó S {§éÑ™è l Vý SÇç  Ùtç  ³Ç Ð]l*×ê°² "{§éÐ]l×î æĶ æ$™è l' A…sêÆý‡$. {§éÐ] l×îæĶ æ$™èl B«  §éÆý ‡…V> {§éÐ] l×êË$ 3 Æý ‡M>Ë$. AÑ..
1. Aç   Ü…™èl–ç³¢ {§éÐ]l×æ…:
{§éÑ™è l ç³ÇÐ]l*×æ… {§éÐ] l×î æĶ æ$™è l MýS…sô æ ™èlMý S$PÐ] lV> E¯]l²ç  ³#µyýl$ B {§éÐ]l×ê°² Aç  Ü…™è l–ç  ³¢{§éÐ] l×æ… A… sêÆý ‡$. C¨ A™è lÅ…™è l íܦÆý ‡OÐð l$¯] l {§éÐ] l×æ….
2. çÜ…™èl–ç³¢ {§éÐ]  l×æ…:
{§éÑ™è l ç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æ…, {§éÐ]l×î æĶ æ$™è lMý S$ ç  ÜÐ] l*¯] l O  Ðð l$¯] lç  ³#yý l$ B {§éÐ] l×ê°² ç  Ü…™è l–ç  ³¢{§éÐ] l×æ… A…sêÆý ‡$.
3. A† çÜ…™èl–ç³¢ {§éÐ]l×æ…:
{§éÑ™è l ç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æ… {§éÐ] l×î æĶ æ$™è l MýS…sôæ GMý S$PO  Ðð l¯] lç  ³#yý l$ B {§éÐ] l×ê°² A† ç  Ü…™è l–ç  ³¢{§éÐ] l×æ… A…sêÆý ‡$. AíܦÆý ‡O  Ðð l$¯]l {§éÐ] l×æ….
{§éÐ]  l×îæĶ  æ$™èl¯]l$ {ç   ³¿êÑ™èl… ^ólõÜ A…Ô>Ë$:
4
{§éÐ]l×î æĶ æ$™è l {§éÑ™è l ç  ÜÓ¿êÐ] l…, {§éÐ] l×ì æ çÜÓ¿êÐ] l…, EÚù~{Vý S™è l, ï³yý l¯éËO  ò³ B«§éÆý‡ç³yìl E…r$…¨.
{§éÐ]  l×ìæ, {§éÑ™éË çÜÓ¿êÐ]l…:
«  
4
«§ý l–Ð] l çÜÐól$Ãⶠæ¯éË$ «  §ý l–Ð] l {§éÐ] l×ìæËÌZ¯] l$, A«  §ýl–Ð] l ç  ÜÐó l$Ãⶠæ¯éË$ A«  §ý l–Ð] l {§éÐ] l×ì æËÌZ¯] l$ Mý SÆý ‡$Vý S$™éƇ¬.
E§é:
M>ç³ÆŠ æ ç  ÜÌô æ¹sŒ æ ±sì æÌZ Mý SÆý ‡$Vý S$™èl$…¨. M>° Mì SÆøí  Ü¯Œ æÌZ MýSÆý‡VýS§ýl$. AÌêVó S ¯é眢ίŒ æMì SÆøí  Ü¯Œ æÌZ Mý SÆý ‡$VýS$™è l$…¨. M>° ±sì æÌZ Mý SÆý ‡Vý S§ý l$.
{§éÐ]  l×êËÌZ° Æý‡M>Ë$:
4
{§éÑ™è l…, {§éÐ] l×ì æË ¿o†Mý Sí  Ü¦† B«  §éÆý ‡…V> {§éÐ] l×ê˯] l$ 9 Æý ‡M> Ë$V> Ð] lÈYMýSÇ…^éÆý ‡$..
EÚù~{Vý  S™è  l:
4
 NaNO
3
,KNO
3
,KOH, NH
4
C
Ð] l…sì æ ç  ³§éÆ>¦Ë {§éÐ] l ×î æĶ æ$™è l EÚù~{VýS™è l ò³ÇW¯]lç  ³#yý l$ ò³Æý‡$VýS$™è l$…¨.
4
 NaC
Ð]l…sìæ ç  ³§éÆ>¦Ë {§éÐ]l×î æĶ æ$™è l EÚù~{VýS™è l ò³ÇW¯] lç  ³#yýl$ Ð]l*Æý ‡§ý l$.
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 {§éÐ]l×êË$
Ð]  l. {§éÑèl, {§éÑèl{§éÐ]  l×ì æE§éçßæÆý  ‡×æ ç   Ü…. {§éÐ]l×ì æË íܦ†
1.ÐéĶ æ¬Ð] l#ÌZÐéĶ æ¬Ð]l#V>Í
 N
2
+O
2
ÐéĶ æ¬Ð] l#2.ÐéĶ æ¬Ð] l#ÌZ{§ý lÐ]lÐéÄæ¬Ð]l#V>ÍÌZ ólÐl$ {§ýlÐ] l…3.ÐéĶ æ¬Ð] l#ÌZç  œ$¯]lÐéÄæ¬Ð]l#V>ÍÌZ Mý SÆý ‡*µÆý ‡…, ç  œ$¯] l… V>ÍÌZ AÄñæ*yìl¯ŒæE™èlµ™èl¯]l…4.{§ý lÐ] l…ÌZ ÐéĶæ¬Ð]l#{§ý lÐ] lÝùyé ÐéĶ æ¬Ð] l#5.{§ýlÐlÌZ{§ý lÐ]l{§ý lÐ] l±Æý ‡$, BËPàÌŒ æË {§ýlÐ] lÑ${Ô¶ æÐ] l$… 6.{§ýlÐlÌZçœ$¯]l{§ý lÐ] l^è lMð SPÆý ‡ {§éÐ] l×æ…, çœ$¯] lEç  ³#µ {§éÐ] l×æ… Ððl¬§ý lO  Ìñ æ¯]  7.çœ$¯lÌZÐéÄæ¬Ð]l#çœ$¯]l
Oclution of 
ÐéĶ æ¬Ð] l#
H
2
in Pd/Pt
8.ç  œ$¯] l…ÌZ ç  œ$¯] lçœ$¯lç³sì æMýS {§éÐ]l×æ… {§ýlÐ] l…9.çœ$¯lÌZçœ$¯]lçœ$¯]lÌZç  ßæ Ñ${Ô¶æÐ]l*Ë$çœ$¯] l…
 
4
Ce
2
(SO
4
)
3
Ð] l…sì æ ç  ³§éÆ>¦Ë {§éÐ]l×î æĶ æ$™è l, EÚù~{Vý S™èl ò³ÇW¯] lç³#yýl$ ™èlVý S$Y™è l$…¨.
ï³yý  l¯]l…:
4
Mö°² ÐéĶ æ¬Ð]l#Ë {§éÐ]l×î æĶ æ$™è l ï³yý l¯] l…™ø´ër$ ò³Æý‡$Vý S$™è l$…¨.
E§é:
Ýùyé±Æý‡$,(M>Æø¾°MŠæBÐ]l$Ï…)
V>Éýl™èl
4
""{ç  ³Ð] l*×æ ç  œ$¯] lç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æ… E¯]l² {§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ E¯] l² {§éÑ™è l ç  ³ÇÐ] l*×ê°² "V>Éý l™è l' A…sêÆý ‡$. V>Éý l™è l¯] l$ ¿êÆý ‡Ô>™èl…, ç  œ$¯] lç  ³ÇÐ]l*×æÔ>™è l…, Ðð l¬ÌêÇsîæ, Ðð l*ÌŒ æ¿êVý S…, Ððl¬ÌêÍsîæ, ¯éÆ>ÃÍsîæ, ¸ëÆ>ÃÍsî æ Ð] l…sì æ Ðésì æ §éÓÆ> ç  Ü*_…^ö^è l$a. {ç  ³çÜ$¢™é°Mì S Ðð l¬§ý lsì æ ¯éË$Vý S$ ç  ³ÇÖͧ骅..
a.
¿êÆý  ‡Ô>™èl…
(
W%):
100 {V>. {§éÐ] …ÌZ Mý SÇW E¯] l² {§éÑ™è l ¿êÆ>°² ({V>Ð]l¬ÌZÏ) ¿êÆý ‡Ô>™è l… A…sêÆý ‡$. {§éÑ™èl ¿êÆý‡…¿êÆý‡Ô>™è l… =
 –––––––––– × 100
{§éÐ] l×æ… ¿êÆý ‡…
b.
çœ$¯]  lç   ³ÇÐ]l*×æÔ>™èl…
(
V%):
10 Ñ$.Î. {§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ Mý SÇWE¯] l²  {§éÑ™è l ç  œ$¯] lç  ³ÇÐ] l*×ê°² (Ñ$.Î.ÌZÏ) çœ$¯] lç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æ… A…sêÆý ‡$. {§éÑ™è l çœ$¯] lç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æ… ç  œ$¯] lç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æ Ô>™è l… =
 –––––––––––––––––– × 100
{§éÐ]l×æ… ç  œ$¯]lç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æ…
c.
Ððl¬ÌêÇsî æ
(M):
JMý S ÎrÆŠ æéÐl×æ…ÌZ Mý SÇWE¯] l² {§éÑ™è lç  ³# Ðð l*ÌŒ æË Ìô æ§é {V>ÐŒ l$Ððl*ÌŒ æË ç  Ü…Qů] l$ Ðð l¬ÌêÇsî æ A…sêÆý‡$. {§éÑ™èl Ðð l*ÌŒæçÜ…Ðð l¬ÌêÇsî æ =
 –––––––––––––––––––––––– 
{§éÐ]l×æ… çœ$¯]lç  ³ÇÐ]l*×æ… ÎrÆý ‡ÏÌZ
(Ìôæ§é)
{§éÑ™èl ¿êÆý‡…Ðð l¬ÌêÇsî æ =
 –––––––––––––––––– × 1000
{§éÑ™èl {V>ÐŒl$ A×æ$¿êÆý‡…
4
Ððl¬ÌêÇsî æ EÚù~{Vý S™è lO  ò³ B«  §éÆý‡ç  ³yì l E…r$…¨. ©° {ç  ³Ð] l*×êË$ Ðð l*ÌŒæ/ÎrÆŠ æ
d.
Ððl*ÌŒ  æ ¿êVýS…
(X):
{§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ E¯] ç  œ$rMý S Ðð l*ÌŒ æç  Ü…QÅMý S$, {§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ E¯] l² Ðð l¬™è … Ððl*ÌŒ æÞ ç  Ü…QÅMý S$ E¯] l² °ç  Ùµ†¢° Ððl*ÌŒ æ ¿êVý S… A…sêÆý ‡$.ç  œ$rMý S Ððl*ÌŒ æËçÜ…QÅ Ððl*ÌŒ æ¿êVýS… =
 –––––––––––––––––– 
{§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ E¯] l² A°² ç  œ$rM>Ë Ðð l¬™è … Ðð l*ÌŒ æÞ ç  Ü…QÅ
±sìæÌZ 糧éÆ>¦Ë AĶ  æ$±MýSÆý  ‡×æ…:
4
糧éÆ>¦Ë$ Mý SÇW AĶ æ*¯] l$Ë°^ó la {ç  ³{Mì SĶ æ$¯] l$ AĶ æ$±Mý SÆý ‡×æ… A… sêÆý ‡$.
4
AĶæ$±Mý SÆý‡×æ… ^ð l…§ó l ç  ³§éÆ>¦Ë$ ѧý l$ŧéÓç  ßæM>Ë$V> {ç³Ð]lÇ¢ Ýë¢Æ‡¬.
4
±sìæÌZ ç  ³NÇ¢V> AĶ æ$±Mý SÆý ‡×æ… ^ð l…§ó l ç  ³§éÆ>¦Ë¯] l$ ºËO  Ððl$¯]l ѧý l$Å ¨ÓÔó æÏÚëÅË$ A…sêÆý ‡$.
Ex:
 NaC
,KC
,CaC
2
,NaNO
3
etc.
4
±sì æÌZ ´ë„ìSMý S…V> AĶ æ$±Mý SÆý ‡×æ… ^ð l…§ó l ç  ³§éÆ>¦Ë¯] l$ ºËï  ßæ¯]l ѧý l$ŨÓÔó æÏÚëÅË$ A…sêÆý‡$.
Ex:
CH
3
COOH, NH
4
OH etc.
4
±sì æÌZ AĶ æ$±Mý SÆý ‡×æ… ^ð l…§ýl° ç  ³§éÆ>¦Ë¯] l$ Aѧýl$Å™Œ æÑÔó æÏÚëÅË$ A…sêÆý‡$.E§é : Vý S*ÏMøgŒ æ, ç  Ü${MøgŒ æÐð l¬§ýlO  Ìñ æ¯]lÑ.
4
ºËï  ßæ¯] l ѧý l$ŨÓÔó æÏÚëÅ˯]l$ Ñί]l… (
dilution
)^ó lõÜ¢AĶ æ$± MýSÆý‡×æ… ò³Æý ‡$Vý S$™èl$…¨. AÌêVó S EÚù~{Vý S™èl¯]l$ ò³…_™ó l AĶ æ$± Mý SÆý ‡×æ… ò³Æý ‡$Vý S$™èl$…¨.
Ð]l¬QÅOÐðl$¯]  l {ç³Ô¶  æ²Ë$4 Ð]l*Æý‡$PË$
1.0.1
M
V>Éýl™è l E¯] l² Ýùyì lĶ æ$… M>Æø¾¯ó lsŒ æéÐl×ê°²  ™èlĶ æ*Æý ‡$^ó lõÜ Ñ«§é¯é°² Ð] lÇ~…^èl…yì l? 2.Ðð l¬ÌêÇsî æ A…sô æ HÑ$sì æ?250 Ñ$.Î. Ýùyì lĶ æ$… M>Æö¾¯ó lsŒ æ {§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ 2.12 {V> Ýùyì lĶæ$… M>Æö¾¯ó lsŒ æE¯] l²rÏƇ¬™ó l B {§éÐ] l×æç  ³# Ðð l¬ÌêÇsî æ Ìñ æMì SP…^èl…yì l?
2 Ð]l*Æý‡$PË$
1.Ðð l¬ÌêÇsîæ, Ðð l*ÌŒ æ¿êV>Ë$ °Æý ‡Ó_…_, ç  Ü*{™éË$ Æ>Ķæ$…yì l? 2.V>Éý l™èl, {§éÐ] l×î æĶ æ$™èl˯]l$ °Æý‡Ó_…^èl…yì l?
1 Ð] *Æý‡$P
1.{§éÑè l… A…sô æ HÑ$sì æ? 2.{§éÐl×ì æ A…sôæ HÑ$sìæ?3.«  §ý l–Ð]l {§éÐ] l×ìæ, A«§ý l–Ð]l {§éÐ] l×ì æËMý S$ E§éç  ßæÆý‡×æÍÐ]lÓ…yì l? 4.¿êÆý ‡Ô>™è l… °Æý‡Ó_…^èl…yì l? 5.ç  œ$¯] lç  ³ÇÐ] l*×æÔ>™è l… °Æý ‡Ó_…^è l…yìl?
çÜÐ]  l$ç   ÜÅË$
1.750 Ñ$.Î. 0.4
M
ÝùyìlĶæ$… O  òßæ{yéO  MðSÞyŠ æéÐl×æ…ÌZ E¯]l² 
 NaOH
Ðð l*ÌŒæË ç  Ü…Qů] l$ Ìñ æMìSP…^è l…yì l? 2.
 NaC
fË{§éÐ] l×æ… ¿êÆý ‡Ô>™èl… 10, {§éÐ] l×æ… ¿êÆý ‡… 150 {V>Ð] l¬Ë$ AƇ¬™ó l
 NaC
¿êÆ>°² Ìñ æMìSP…^è l…yì l? 3.4 {V>Ðl¬Ë
 NaOH
°16.2 {V>. ±sì æÌZ Mý SÇW…^è lV> HÆý ‡µyý lz
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{§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ
 NaOH,
±sì æ Ðð l*ÌŒ æ¿êV>˯]l$ Ìñ æMì SP…^èl…yì l? 4.250 Ñ$.Î.
0.5M NaOH
{§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ
 NaOH
ç³ÇÐ]l*×æ…G…™è l?5.500 Ñ$.Î.
 Na
2
CO
3
fË{§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ 2.12 {V>Ð] l¬Ë
 Na
2
CO
3
E…sô æB{§éÐl×Ðð l¬ÌêÇsî æ°ÌñMì SP…^è l…yì l? 6.10 {Vl¬Ë Ýùyì lĶ æ$… M>Æö¾¯ó lsŒ æ120 {V>Ðl¬Ë fË {§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ Mý SÇW E…¨. §é° ¿êÆý ‡Ô>™é°² Mý S¯] l$MøP…yì l? 7.2 Ðð l*ÌŒ æË
 Na
2
CO
3
°3Ðð l*ÌŒ æË ±sì æÌZ Mý SÇW…^è lV> HÆý ‡µyý lz {§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ
 Na
2
CO
3
,±sì æÐð l*ÌŒ æ¿êV>˯l$ Ìñ æMìSP…^è l…yì l? 8.160 Ñ$.Î. ±sì æÌZ 20 Ñ$.Î BËPàÌŒæMýSÍí  ³™ól HÆý ‡µyó l {§éÐ] l×æ çœ$¯] lç³ÇÐ] l*×æÔ>™è lÐð l$…™è l? 9.45 Ñ$. òßæõ³t¯Œ æ¯] l$ 15 Ñ$.Î. òßæMó SÞ¯Œ æMý S$ Mý SÍí  ³¯] lç  ³#yý l$ HÆý ‡µyì l¯] l {§éÐ]l×æ… çœ$¯] lç³ÇÐ]l*×æ Ô>™é°² Ìñ æMì SP…^è l…yì l? 10. 500 Ñ$.Î.
0.2M
BM>ÞÍM>Ð] l$Ï{§éÐ] l×æ…ÌZ E¯] l² BM>ÞÍM>Ð] l$Ï ¿êÆ>°² Ìñ æMì SP…^è l…yì l? (BM>ÞÍM>Ð] l$ÏA×æ$ ¿êÆý ‡… 126)

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