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A Combined Method for Finger Vein Authentication System

A Combined Method for Finger Vein Authentication System

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Published by ijcsis
Finger vein as a new biometric is developing in security purposes. Since the vein patterns are unique between each individual and located inside the body, forgery is extremely difficult. Therefore, the finger vein authentication systems have received extensive attention in public security and information security domains. According to the importance of these systems, the different techniques have been proposed to each stages of the system. The stages include image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and feature extraction, matching and recognition. While the segmentation techniques often appear feasible in theory, deciding about the accuracy in a system seems important. Therefore, this paper release the conceptual explanation of finger vein authentication system by combining two different techniques in segmentation stage to evaluate the quality of the system. Also, it applies Neural Network for authentication stage. The result of this evaluation is 95% in training and 93% in testing.
Finger vein as a new biometric is developing in security purposes. Since the vein patterns are unique between each individual and located inside the body, forgery is extremely difficult. Therefore, the finger vein authentication systems have received extensive attention in public security and information security domains. According to the importance of these systems, the different techniques have been proposed to each stages of the system. The stages include image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and feature extraction, matching and recognition. While the segmentation techniques often appear feasible in theory, deciding about the accuracy in a system seems important. Therefore, this paper release the conceptual explanation of finger vein authentication system by combining two different techniques in segmentation stage to evaluate the quality of the system. Also, it applies Neural Network for authentication stage. The result of this evaluation is 95% in training and 93% in testing.

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Published by: ijcsis on Aug 13, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011
 A Combined Method for Finger Vein AuthenticationSystem
 
Azadeh Noori Hoshyar Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ir.Riza SulaimanDepartment of Computer Science Department of Industrial ComputingUniversity Kebangsaan Malaysia University Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangi, Malaysia Bangi, Malaysiaa_noori_h@yahoo.com rs@ftsm.ukm.myAfsaneh Noori HoshyarDepartment of Industrial ComputingUniversity Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangi, MalaysiaAfsa1986@yahoo.com
 Abstract
 — 
Finger vein as a new biometric is developing insecurity purposes. Since the vein patterns are unique betweeneach individual and located inside the body, forgery is extremelydifficult. Therefore, the finger vein authentication systems havereceived extensive attention in public security and informationsecurity domains. According to the importance of these systems,the different techniques have been proposed to each stages of thesystem. The stages include image acquisition, preprocessing,segmentation and feature extraction, matching and recognition.While the segmentation techniques often appear feasible intheory, deciding about the accuracy in a system seems important.Therefore, this paper release the conceptual explanation of fingervein authentication system by combining two different techniquesin segmentation stage to evaluate the quality of the system. Also,it applies Neural Network for authentication stage. The result of this evaluation is 95% in training and 93% in testing.
 Keywords- Finger Vein authentication; Vein recognition;Verification; Feature extraction; segmentation
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
A wide variety of systems require the reliable personalauthentication schemes to confirm or identify an individualrequesting their services. The purpose of these schemes isensuring that only a legal user and no one else can access toprovider services. Among different authentication traits such asfingerprints, hand geometry, vein, facial, voice, iris andsignature, finger vein authentication is a new biometricidentification technology using the fact that different personhas a different finger vein patterns. The idea using vein patternsas a form of biometric technology was first proposed in 1992,while researches only paid attentions to vein authentication inlast ten years. Vein patterns are sufficiently different acrossindividuals, and they are stable unaffected by ageing and nosignificant changed in adults by observing. It is believed thatthe patterns of blood vein are unique to every individual, evenamong twins [1].Vein patterns are located inside the body. Therefore, itprovides a high level of accuracy due to the uniqueness andcomplexity of vein patterns of the finger. It is difficult to forge.Epidermis status cannot effect on recognition system [2].Finger vein systems provide user-friendly environment.Therefore, finger vein is a good candidate for authenticationand security purposes.According to the importance of finger vein authenticationsystem, this paper proposes a system as shown in figure1.
Figure 1. The scheme of finger vein authentication system
In the proposed system, different filters are applies for pre-processing stage. Since there are different techniques onsegmentation stage of authentication systems such as matchedfilter [3], morphological methods [4], repeated line trackingmethod [5] and maximum curvature points in image profiles[6], the lack of experiment on combining two different
techniques of “gradient
-
 based threshold” and “maximumcurvature points in image profile” was found to improve the
quality of verification system, while the previous studiesconsidered just a single technique for segmentation purpose. Innext step, Neural Network is applied to evaluate the quality of training and testing, finally Neural Network is trained andtested for pattern recognition purpose.
15http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011
Experimental results of this work show that the system isvalid for user authentication purpose even in high securityenvironments, as it was the initial intention given the nature of human finger vein.II.
 
FINGER
 
VEIN
 
AUTHENTICATION
 
SYSTEMThe steps of finger vein authentication system are explained inthe following.
 A.
 
 Image Acquisition
The first step in finger vein authentication system iscapturing the image of finger veins. The quality of capturedimage helps to identify the veins of fingers as well. ImageAcquisition can be done in two ways; i) using infrared-sensitive digital camera with wavelength between 700nm to1000nm and banks of LEDs ; ii) using digital camera withCCD sensor and IR filter which is located on the camera withwavelength 700nm to 1000nm and banks of LEDs .Therefore, as shown in figure 2, the Near-infrared raysgenerated from a bank of LEDs (light emitting diodes)penetrate the finger and are absorbed by the hemoglobin in theblood. The areas in which the rays are absorbed (veins) thusappear as dark areas in an image taken by a CCD camera(charge-coupled device) located on the opposite side of thefinger. The CCD camera image will be transferred to PC fornext step of authentication [7].
Figure 2. Image Acquisition system[8]
As stated above, the better quality can make recognitionsystem more accurate. For this purpose, the noise is reduced onnext step.
 B.
 
Pre-Processing
As the image has been taken by camera has redundant partswhich needs to be cropped. Therefore, only the central part of finger vein image can be taken in Matlab by a simple line;(1)I2= imcrop (I, rect);
 
Where „I‟ is an image and „rect‟ is the position for 
cropping.The next step in this section is reducing the noise of fingervein image to improve segmentation. Since the captured imagehas much noise, therefore it needs to be improved for gettingbetter quality. For this purpose, the enhancement Functions
such as ‟medfilt2‟, „medfilt2‟ can be employed. As the final
step for image pre-processing, the image contrast can be
increased using commands in Matlab such as „histeq‟.
Figure 3shows the total process for enhancing the image.
cropping
Reducing noiseIncreasing contrast
Input image
 
Figure 3. Image enhancement process
 
C.
 
Segmentation and Feauture extractions
In this stage, the enhanced finger vein image is segmentedand the features are extracted. Since there are different methodsfor segmentation, this paper propose the combination of twosegmentation methods as
"
Gradient-based thresholding usingmorphological operation
"
and
"
Maximum Curvature Points inImage Profiles
"
to segment and extract the features. Thefeatures of first segmentation method are merged with featuresof second segmentation method to obtaine an accurate recordfor each finger vein images.1)
Gradient-based thresholding using morphologicaloperation:
In this segmentation method, the gradient of image by alpha filter is created. Then, thresholding isperformed on gradient of image. The high gradient valueswhich are more than threshold value in the image fall asedge (vein). After the vein determination in an image, themorphological operations are employed to make an imagesmoother. The proposed morphological operations are
„majority‟ to remove extra pixels, „openning‟ to smoothsthe contour of image and breaks narrow passages, „bridge‟
to connects the neighbor pixels which are disconnected.The original and obtained image after first segmentationmethod (includes performing gradient, thresholding,morphological operation) are shown in figure 4.
a bFigure 4. a) Original image b) Obtained image after firstsegmentation
The total process for the
"
Gradient-based thresholdingusing morphological operation
"
method is shown as figure 5.
16http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011
Thresholding
'majority' operation'open' operation'bridge' operation
Gradient of imageSegmented image
 
Figure 5.Total process of first method for finger vein extraction
2) Maximum Curvature Points in Image Profiles:
 
In thissegmentation method, the curvatures of image profiles arechecks, then, the centerlines of veins are obtained byconsidering the positions where the curvatures of a cross-sectional profile are locally maximal. The centerlines areconnected to each other; finally, the vein pattern is achieved.This method is robust against temporal fluctuations in veinwidth and brightness (N.Miura, A.Nagasaka, and T.Miyatake2005).The algorithm for achieving the pattern can be divided into 2stages;
 
Extracting the centreline positions of veins: The first step of algorithm is to detect the centerline positions. For thispurpose, the cross-sectional profile of finger vein image iscalculated to obtain the intensity value of each pixel along theline in an image. In created matrix of intensity, when theintensity is positive, it is considered as curvature until itbecomes negative again. The maximum differences of intensities between two pixels are considered as a vein pixelin a row of matrix.
 
Connecting center positions of veins: For connecting thecenter positions, all the pixels are checked. If a pixel and twoneighbors in both sides have large values, the horizontal lineis drawn. If a pixel and two neighbors in both sides havesmall values, a line is drawn with a gap at a pixel position.Therefore, the value of a pixel should be increased to connectthe line. The last condition on connecting the center positionsof veins is a pixel has large value and two neighbors in bothsides have small values, a dot of noise is created in pixelposition, and therefore the value of a pixel should be reduced.Figure 6 shows the result of second segmentation.
a bFigure 6. a) Original image b) Obtained image after second segmentation
The total process for the
"
Maximum Curvature Points inImage Profiles
method is shown as figure 5.
Calculating the crosssectional profile of imageCalculating the scores ofcenter pointscalculating curvaturesCalculating the Localmaximum of curvaturesAssigning scores to centerpoints
 
Figure 5. Total process of second method for finger vein extraction
The following features in the first and second methods of 
"
Gradient-based thresholding using morphological operation
"
 and
"
Maximum Curvature Points in Image Profiles
"
areextracted to train Neural Network.The extracted features for the first method are as follows.
 
Sum(~BW2(:)) : The number of black pixels in thesegmented vein image.
 
Bwperim(BW2): Perimeter of foreground(veins) insegmented vein image.
 
Bwdist(BW2): Number to each pixel that is the distancebetween the pixel and the nearest nonzero pixel of BW2.
 
Bwarea(BW2): The area of the foreground (veins) insegmented vein image.The extracted features for the second method are as follows.
 
Cross sectional profile of segmented vein image invertical direction: Sum of the intensities of pixels insegmented vein image in vertical direction.
 
Cross sectional profile of segmented vein image inhorizental direction: Sum of the intensities of pixels insegmented vein image in horizental direction.
 
Cross sectional profile of segmented vein image inoblique1 direction: Sum of the intensities of pixels insegmented vein image in oblique1 direction.
 
Cross sectional profile of segmented vein image inoblique2 direction: Sum of the intensities of pixels insegmented vein image in oblique2 direction.
 
Curvatures score: Sum of the calculated scores of curvatures in segmented vein image.
 D.
 
 Matching and Recognition by Neural Network 
The table which is created using the combination of 
"
Gradient-based thresholding using morphological operation
"
 
17http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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