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Colorization of Gray Level Images by Using Optimization

Colorization of Gray Level Images by Using Optimization

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Published by ijcsis
This article discusses the colorization of gray level images. Because of the technique applied in this paper, this method can be used in colorizing medical images. Color images achieved have good distinction and separation. The proposed method can be used to separate the objects in gray images. Our method is based on a simple premise: neighboring pixels in space-time that have similar intensities should have similar colors. We formalize this premise using a quadratic cost function and obtain an optimization problem that can be solved efficiently using standard techniques. In our approach an artist only needs to annotate the image with a few color scribbles, and the indicated colors are automatically propagated in both space and time to produce a fully colorized image or sequence.
This article discusses the colorization of gray level images. Because of the technique applied in this paper, this method can be used in colorizing medical images. Color images achieved have good distinction and separation. The proposed method can be used to separate the objects in gray images. Our method is based on a simple premise: neighboring pixels in space-time that have similar intensities should have similar colors. We formalize this premise using a quadratic cost function and obtain an optimization problem that can be solved efficiently using standard techniques. In our approach an artist only needs to annotate the image with a few color scribbles, and the indicated colors are automatically propagated in both space and time to produce a fully colorized image or sequence.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011
Colorization of gray level images by usingoptimization
Hossein Ghayoumi Zadeh Hojat Jafari Alireza Malvandi Javad Haddadnia
Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical EngineeringSabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University
Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi, Iran Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi, Iran Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi, Iran Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi, Iranh.ghayoumizadeh@gmail.com jafari.hojat@gmail.comali.malvandi0@gmail.comhaddadnia@sttu.ac.ir
 Abstract
This article discusses the colorization of graylevel images. Because of the technique applied in thispaper, this method can be used in colorizing medicalimages. Color images achieved have good distinctionand separation. The proposed method can be used toseparate the objects in gray images. Our method isbased on a simple premise: neighboring
 
pixels in space-time that have similar intensities should
 
have similar
 
colors. We formalize this premise using a quadratic costfunction
 
and obtain an optimization problem that canbe solved efficiently
 
using standard techniques. In ourapproach an artist only needs to
 
annotate the imagewith a few color scribbles, and the indicated
 
colors areautomatically propagated in both space and time toproduce a fully colorized image or sequence.
 
 Keywords- colorization, Equalization, gray level 
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Colorization is the art of adding color to amonochrome image or movie. This is done in order toincrease the visual appeal of images such as old black and white photos, classic movies or scientificillustrations. Various semi-automatic colorizationapproaches have been published previously. They allinvolve some form of partial human intervention inorder to make a mapping between the color and theintensity. Luminance keying also known aspseudocoloring[1] is a basic colorization techniquewhich utilizes a userdefined look-up table totransform each level of grayscale intensity into aspecified hue, saturation and brightness, i.e a globalcolor vector is assigned to each grayscale value.Welsh et al.[2] proposed techniques where rather thanchoosing colors from a palette to color individualcomponents, the color is transferred from a sourcecolor image to a target grayscale image by matchingluminance and texture information between theimages. This approach is inspired by a method of color transfer between images described in Reinhardet al. [3] and image analogies by Hertzmann et al. [4].Another well known approach to colorization [5]assumes that small changes take place between twoconsecutive frames; therefore, it is possible to useoptical flow to estimate dense pixel to pixelcorrespondences. Chromatic information can then betransferred directly between the corresponding pixels.There are some approaches [6], [7], [8] which makeuse of the assumption that the homogeneity in thegray-scale domain indicates homogeneity in the colordomain and vice versa. This assumption provides apossibility to propagate color from several user-defined seed pixels to the rest of the image. In [9],colorization is done through luminance-weightedchrominance blending and fast intrinsic distancecomputations. Shi et al.[10] color the grayscaleimages by segmentation and color filling method,where an image is first segmented into regions andthen the desired colors are Used to fill each region.Since the existing automatic image segmentationalgorithms usually cannot segment the image intomeaningful regions, only color filling of eachsegmented region cannot produce natural colorizedresults. Sykora et al. [11] suggested usingunsupervised image segmentation in cartoonscolorization. However the method usually cannot getideal results for other types of images and is restrictedto only cartoons.A major difficulty with colorization,however, lies in the fact that it is an expensive andtime-consuming process. For example, in order tocolorize a still image an artist typically begins bysegmenting the image into regions, and then proceedsto assign a color to each region. Unfortunately,automatic segmentation algorithms often fail tocorrectly identify fuzzy or complex region boundaries,such as the boundary between a subject's hair and herface. Thus, the artist is often left with the task of manually delineating complicated boundaries betweenregions. Colorization of movies requires, in addition,tracking regions across the frames of a shot. Existingtracking algorithms typically fail to robustly track non-rigid regions, again requiring massive userintervention in the process.
20http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011
II.
 
A
LGORITHM
The first step in colorizing the gray level images isto remove noise and perform threshold operation onimages so that colorization is done accurately. If theprimary picture is similar to fig.1, the figure histogramneeds to be examined carefully presented in fig. 2.
Figure 1. Gray level main image to colorizeFigure 2. Histogram of the primary figure
As you observe in fig.2, histogram is not even sowe use equalization.III.
 
H
ISTOGRAM
E
QUALIZATION
 This method usually increases the globalcontrastof many images, especially when the usabledataof theimage is represented by close contrast values.Through this adjustment, theintensitiescan be betterdistributed on the histogram. This allows for areas of lower local contrast to gain a higher contrast.Histogram equalization accomplishes this byeffectively spreading out the most frequent intensityvalues.
 
The method is useful in images with backgroundsand foregrounds that are both bright or both dark. Inparticular, the method can lead to better views of bonestructure inx-rayimages, and to better detail inphotographsthat are over or under-exposed. A keyadvantage of the method is that it is a fairlystraightforward technique and aninvertibleoperator.  So in theory, if the histogram equalizationfunctionisknown, then the original histogram can be recovered.The calculation is notcomputationallyintensive. Adisadvantage of the method is that it is indiscriminate.It may increase the contrast of backgroundnoise, while decreasing the usablesignal.Histogramequalization often produces unrealistic effects inphotographs; however it is very useful for scientificimages likethermal, satelliteorx-rayimages, often the same class of images that user would applyfalse-colorto. Also histogram equalization can produceundesirable effects (like visibleimage gradient)whenapplied to images with lowcolor depth.For example,if applied to 8-bit image displayed with8-bit gray-scale paletteit will further reducecolor depth(number of unique shades of gray) of the image. Histogramequalization will work the best when applied toimages with much highercolor depththanpalettesize, likecontinuousdata or 16-bit gray-scale images.
 
To transfer the gray levels so that the histogram of the resulting image is equalized to be a constant:
 
H[i] =constant for all iThe purposes:To equally use all available gray levels ; forfurther histogram specification. (Fig .3)
21http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011
Figure 3. This figure shows that for any given mapping functiony=f(x) between the input and output images
 
The following holds:P(y)dy=p(x)dx (1)i.e., the number of pixels mapped from x to y isunchanged.To equalize the histogram of the output image, welet p(y) be a constant. In particular, if the gray levelsare assumed to be in the ranges between 0 and 1(0
x
1, 0
y
1), then p(y) =1. Then we have:dy=p(x)dx or dy/dx=p(x) (2)i.e., the mapping function y=f(x) for histogramequalization is:
y=
X
=
p
u
du=p
x
p
0
=p(x)
x0
(3)Where
p
x
=
p
u
du ,p
0
=0
x0
(4)Is the cumulative probability distribution of the inputimage, which monotonically increases .Intuitively, histogram equalization is realized by thefollowing:If p(x) is high, P(x) has a steep slope, dy will be wide,causing p(y) to be low to keep p(y)dy=p(x)dx ;If p(x) is low, P(x) has a shallow slope; dy will benarrow, causing p(y) to be high.For discrete gray levels, the gray level of the input xtakes one of the L discrete values: x
{0,1,2,..,L
1}
and the continuous mapping function becomesdiscrete:
y
 
=f[x]
h
i
=H
x
xi=0
(5)Where h[i] is the probability for the gray level of anygiven pixel to be I (0
i
L-1):h[i]=
n
i
n
iL
1i=0
=
n
i
N
and
h
i
=1
L
1i=0
(6)Of course here h [i] is the histogram of the image andH[i] is the cumulative histogram.The resulting function
y
 
 
is in the range 0 ≤
y
 
1
andit needs to be converted
to the gray levels 0 ≤y≤
L-1by either of the two ways:
y=
y
 
L
1
+0.5
 
(8)
y=
y
y
 
min
1
y
 
min
L
1
+0.5
 Where [x] is the floor, or the integer part of a realnumber x, and adding 0.5 is for proper rounding. Notethat while both conversions map
y
 
max
=1
to thehighest gray level L-1, the second conversion alsomaps
y
 
min
to 0 to stretch the gray levels of the output
image to occupy the entire dynamic range 0≤Y<L
-1.The result is shown in fig.4.
Figure 4. Image equalization
 
We work in YUV color space, commonly used invideo, where Y is the monochromatic luminancechannel, which we will refer to simply as intensity,while U and V are the chrominance channels,encoding the color [Jack 2001].The algorithm is given as input an intensity volumeY(x; y; t) and outputs two color volumes U(x; y; t)
22http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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