(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
investigated for image classification technique A featurevector is extracted for an image of size N X N using DCT or
Walsh or Haar or Kekre’s Transform. The similarity
measurement (SM), where a distance (e.g., Euclidean distance)between the query image and each image in the database usingtheir feature vectors is computed so
that the top closest
images can be retrieved [7, 14, 17].II.
WORKMany image classification systems have been developed sincethe early 1990s. Various image representations andclassification techniques are adopted in these systems: theimages are represented by global features, block-basedfeatures, region-based local features, or bag-of-wordsfeatures, and various machine learning techniques areadopted for the classification tasks, such as K-nearestneighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machines (SVM),Hidden Markov Model(HMM), Diverse Density(DD),DD-SVM and so on.Recently, a popular technique for representing image contentfor image category recognition is the bag of visual wordmodel [10, 6].In the indexing phase, each image of the database isrepresented using a set of image attribute, such as color ,shape [9, 1], texture  and layout . Extracted features arestored in a visual feature database. In the searching phase,when a user makes a query, a feature vector for the query iscomputed. Using a similarity criterion, this vector is comparedto the vectors in the feature database.A heterogeneous image recognition system based on contentdescription and classification is used in which for imagedatabase several features extraction methods are used andapplied to better describes the images content. The featuresrelevance is tested and improved through Support VectorsMachines (SVMs) classifier of the consequent images indexdatabase .In literature there are various Image classification methods.Some of these methods use wavelets transform and supportvector machine ; some methods use effective algorithmfor building codebooks for visual recognition ; someadvanced image classification techniques use Artificial NeuralNetworks, Support Vector Machines, Fuzzy measures andGenetic Algorithms  whereas some methods are proposedfor classifying images, which integrates several sets of Support Vector Machines (SVM) on multiple low level imagefeatures .III.
(DCT)In general, neighbouring pixels within an image tend to behighly correlated. As such, it is desired to use an invertibletransform to concentrate randomness into fewer, decorrelatedparameters .The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) hasbeen shown to be near optimal for a large class of images inenergy concentration and decorrelating. It has been adopted inthe JPEG and MPEG coding standards . The DCTdecomposes the signal into underlying spatial frequencies,which then allow further processing techniques to reduce theprecision of the DCT coefficients consistent with the HumanVisual System (HVS) model. The DCT coefficients of animage tend themselves as a new feature, which have theability to represent the regularity, complexity and sometexture features of an image and it can be directly applied toimage data in the compressed domain . This may be a wayto solve the large storage space problem and thecomputational complexity of the existing methods.The two dimensional DCT can be written in terms of pixelvalues
-1 and the frequency-domaintransform coefficients
):The DCT tends to concentrate information, making it usefulfor image compression applications and also helping inminimizing feature vector size in CBIR . For full 2-Dimensional DCT for an NxN image the number of multiplications required are N
(2N) and number of additionsrequired are N
TRANSFORMWalsh transform matrix [18,19,23,26] is defined as a set of Nrows, denoted Wj, for j = 0, 1, .... , N - 1, which have thefollowing properties:Wj takes on the values +1 and -1.Wj = 1 for all j.Wj xW
=0, for j
k and Wj xW
=N, for j=k.Wj has exactly j zero crossings, for j = 0, 1, ...., N-1.Each row Wj is even or odd with respect to itsmidpoint.Walsh transform matrix is defined using a Hadamard matrixof order N. The Walsh transform matrix row is the row of theHadamard matrix specified by the Walsh code index, whichmust be an integer in the range [0... N -1]. For the Walsh codeindex equal to an integer j, the respective Hadamard outputcode has exactly j zero crossings, for j = 0, 1... N - 1.