(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, 2011
value NDD (Not Delivered Data packet) and we set a thresholdvalue
. According to NDD value and threshold value, wedecide whether FG node forwards the J-Query packet and joinsto the forwarding group or not, in the next rout refresh interval.If NDD value of the node is greater than threshold value,that node is forbidden from forwarding Join-Query packets inthe next rout refresh interval. The higher threshold value makesthe LFPA_ODMRP similar to ODMRP. The lower thresholdvalue saves more control messages, but at low threshold valueand high load of network traffic, some multicast sessions haveno routes to receivers because intermediate nodes save toomany control massages. We determined optimized thresholdvalue by simulation results. Simulation results show thatoptimized threshold value must be double of PacketTransmission Rate or network traffic load.
The data structure of LFPA_ODMRP
In addition to data structures used in ODMRP, two other data structures used in LFPA_ODMRP are as follow:Data Passive ACK Table: In LFPA_ODMRP this datastructure is created to every FG node. “Fig. 1”,
shows the fieldsof an entry in a Data Passive ACK Table. Each entry in thistable includes source address, group address, sequence number of data packet, a flag bit to indicate whether this node hasreceived passive acknowledgement for this data packet or notand time stamp field indicates recording time of this record.When a forwarding node receives an unduplicated data packet,it inserts a record to its own “Data
Passive ACK Table”
Figure 1. Format of Data Passive ACK Table
Next Node Table: Another data structure that every FGnode maintains is “Next Node
Table”. “Fig. 2”, shows thefields of an entry in a Next Node Table. In this table, multicastaddress field is the address of a multicast group; source addressfield is the address of a node, which initiates the data packet;next node address field presents which node deals with the packet last. When a node receives join reply packet and becomes a forwarding node of a group, it records the address of a node which deals the reply packet last as next node address inits “Next Node Table”. Therefore, each forwarding node knowswhich nodes are its next nodes on path to receivers. If the nodewhich its address is written in “next node address” field is puremember of group, “It is a member” field is set “true” becausethe members don’t forward data packets.
Figure 2. Format of Next Node Table
The forwarding mesh setup in LFPA_ODMRP
LFPA_ODMRP is a mesh-based on-demand multicast protocol which is based on ODMRP. The setup andmaintenance of routes are roughly the same as ODMRP withsmall difference. LFPA_ODMRP builds a mesh for multicastdata delivery and is composed of a request phase and a reply phase similar to ODMRP.
When a source has data packets to sendwithout knowing routes, it floods a Join Query packet toacquire membership information and routes to entire network,when a node receives a non-duplicate Join Query, it checks its“Passive ACK Table” to decide whether it drops the JoinQuery packet or rebroadcast it. The decision principles are asfollows.
We set a threshold value
that it is double of PacketTransmission Rate. NDD is number of Passive ACK table entries which their delivery field is false. NDDvalue indicates number of data packets which a FGnode has forwarded but it has not received passiveACK for them.
For every FG node if NDD value exceeds thresholdvalue, it drops the Join Query packet; otherwise itrebroadcasts the Join Query packet.
: After receiving Join Query packets, amember answers its received Join Query packets with a JoinReply packet same as ODMRP. When a node receives a JoinReply packet, it checks whether it is a downstream nodedefined in the downstream list of the Join Reply packet. If thenode is a downstream node, then the node marks itself as aforwarding node. The new forwarding node records the addressof a node dealing the reply packet last (the address of the nodewhich has been received reply packet from it) as next addressin its “Next Node Table”, and broadcasts a new Join Reply packet. Therefore, the nodes on the paths are marked asforwarding nodes, and each forwarding node knows whichnodes are its next nodes on path to receivers.
Data packet forwarding in LFPA_ODMRP
A source begins to broadcast its data packets, after itsforwarding mesh founded. When a FG node receives a dataPacket, it deals with the data packet as follows:
When a forwarding node receives an unduplicated data packet, it relays the data packet then it records itssource address, multicast group address and sequencenumber in “Passive ACK table”, if next node of thisnode is not pure receiver or member of multicastgroup.
When the FG node receives a data packet from its nextnode on path to a receiver (data passive ACK), it refersto its “Data Passive ACK Table” and sets true todelivery field in related record.V.
We evaluated the performance of our proposed scheme bycarrying out various simulation studies. The simulation modelwas built around GLOMOSIM  developed at theUniversity of California, Los Angeles using PARSEC. TheIEEE 802.11 DCF is used as the MAC protocol. The free-space propagation model is used at the radio layer. In the radiomodel, we assumed that the radio type was radio-capture.
Mcast.Addr Scr.Addr Seq.Num Time.stamp DeliveryMcast.Addr Scr.Addr Next nodeAddr Time.stampIt is amember