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Analysis of Mobile Traffic based on Fixed Line Tele-Traffic Models

Analysis of Mobile Traffic based on Fixed Line Tele-Traffic Models

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Published by ijcsis
An optimal radio network which provides and handle the largest amount of traffic for a given number of channels at a specified level of quality of service are designed by accurate traffic characterization and a precise analysis of mobile user’s behavior in terms of mobility and cellular traffic. This paper reviews the statistical characteristics of voice and message traffic. It investigated possible time-correlation of call arrivals in sets of GSM
telephone traffic data and observes proximity of practical mobile traffic characteristics vis-à-vis classical fixed-line call arrival pattern, holding time distribution and inter-arrival pattern. The results indicated dominance of applicability of basic traffic model with deviations. A more realistic cause for call blocking experienced by users has also been analyzed.
An optimal radio network which provides and handle the largest amount of traffic for a given number of channels at a specified level of quality of service are designed by accurate traffic characterization and a precise analysis of mobile user’s behavior in terms of mobility and cellular traffic. This paper reviews the statistical characteristics of voice and message traffic. It investigated possible time-correlation of call arrivals in sets of GSM
telephone traffic data and observes proximity of practical mobile traffic characteristics vis-à-vis classical fixed-line call arrival pattern, holding time distribution and inter-arrival pattern. The results indicated dominance of applicability of basic traffic model with deviations. A more realistic cause for call blocking experienced by users has also been analyzed.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, 2011
Analysis of Mobile Traffic based on Fixed LineTele-Traffic Models
Abhishek Gupta
Bhavana Jharia Gopal Chandra Manna
 
ME Student, Communication System Associate Professor, Department of EC Sr. General Manager 
 
Engineering Branch Jabalpur Engineering College BSNL, Jabalpur Jabalpur Engineering College, M.P., India M.P, India M.P, Indiaabhishek2800@gmail.com dr.bhavana.jharia@jec-jabalpur.org gcmanna@gmail.com
 Abstract 
 — 
A
n optimal radio network which providesand handle the largest amount of traffic for a givennumber of channels at a specified level of quality of service are designed by accurate trafficcharacterization and a precise analysis of mobileuser’s behavior in terms of mobility and cellulartraffic.This paper reviews the statistical characteristics of voice and message traffic. It investigated possibletime-correlation of call arrivals in sets of GSMtelephone traffic data and observes proximity of practical mobile traffic characteristics vis-à-visclassical fixed-line call arrival pattern, holding timedistribution and inter-arrival pattern. The resultsindicated dominance of applicability of basic trafficmodel with deviations. A more realistic cause for callblocking experienced by users has also beenanalyzed.
 Keywords:
GSM, Poisson distribution, Exponentialdistribution, Arrival pattern, Holding time Inter-arrivalPattern.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 GSM cellular network have undergone rapid developmentsin the past few years. The operators are facing challenges tomaintain an adequate level of quality of service with growingnumber of end users and increasing demand for variety of services [1, 2].The mobile communication system has a limited capacity; itcan only support a limited amount of simultaneous trafficespecially in peak hours with appropriate Grade of Service(GoS). In the past few Decades, several traffic models likeExponential model, Poisson models etc. for Cellular systemshave been proposed for predicting the behavior of mobiletraffic [3]. The mobile traffic models are derived by fitting theexisting traffic data obtained from experience of land-linetraffic.A scale-free user network model was used by researchersin the analysis of cellular network traffic, which Shown theclear connection between the user network behavior and thesystem traffic load [4]. The traffic performance of a Cellular system is strongly correlated with the behavior of its mobileusers. However, In previous models the random variation of thereal traffic behaviors are unknown or simply not taken intoaccount in the modeling process, such models fall short of aclear Connection with the actual physical processes involvesthat are responsible for the behavior observed in the trafficdata.This paper focuses on the traffic Characterization of GSMnetwork where differences between traditional model and practical data may occur. The selected GSM networks provideda good conversational service to a population of mobile users in both dense urban area like Calcutta and the other at rural area at North Eastern province of India. A few sets of GSM traffic datahas been collected during January 2011 from both areas andwere subjected to analysis in present research work.The outline of this paper is organized as follows: section IIDescribes the overview of the previous or classical models for describing traffic characterization in mobile networks. SectionIII introduces analytical approach of real traffic data to outlinethe statistical method of distribution for arrival processes andthe channel holding time. Section IV traffic analysis result are presented. Section V Concludes the paper.II.BASIC TRAFFIC MODELLS AND PREVIOUS WORK The traditional telephone traffic theory, developed for wired Networks, call arrivals to a local exchange are usuallymodeled as a Poisson’s process. The process assumes 1)stationary arrival rate since the user population served by theexchange is very large and 2) has negligible correlation amongusers. These pair of assumptions is also applicable in cellular networks for incoming calls. These assumptions leads torandom traffic model shaped as Poisson process for analyticsimplicity.According to Poisson distribution, the probability of n no of calls arrival in given time interval 0 to t isWhere,
λ 
is the arrival rate.In research at [5], it has been shown that Poisson’sassumption might not be valid in wireless cellular networks for a Number of reasons like when we concentrating on small area;where possible correlation may occurs between users;
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, 2011
 presence of congestion; and the effect of handover occursfrequently etc.The second important parameter for mobile cellular network  planning is the channel holding time. It can be defined as thetime during which a new call occupies a channel in the givencell, and it is dependent on the mobility of the user. In the past,it has been widely assumed as the negative exponentialdistribution to describe the channel holding time [6].The probability of holding a call by a further time dt after holding the call up to time t isThe hypothesis of negative exponentially distributedchannel holding time is valid under certain circumstances [7].The channel holding time has been also been showed to fitlognormal distributions better than the exponential one [8].Also, several other works are also contradicted this simpleassumption. In [9,10] the probability distribution that better fits empirical data, by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, wasfound to be a sum of lognormal distributions.In some other works, it is shown that the channelholding time is also affected by user mobility. It ischaracterized by the cell residence time i.e. period of stay of acall in a cell. The cell residence time also follows definitedistribution pattern. The channel holding time distribution wasderived analytically [11, 12, 13] when the cell residence timehas Erlang or Hyper-Erlang distribution. A further empiricalstudy on GSM telephone traffic data reported in [14] whereanswered call holding time and inter-arrival times were foundto be best modeled by the lognormal-3 function, rather than bythe Poisson and negative exponential distribution.All the studies thus could not unanimously declare the bestoption between the classic Poisson model and the exponentialmodel for telephone traffic in cellular networks. In contrast,they suggested that call arrivals and holding time distributionmay be significantly time-correlated, due to congestion, user mobility and possible correlation between neighboring users.Study of all previous work lead us to further investigate theexact correlation of recent mobile traffic behavior with classicmodels and to check whether the traffic characterizationobtained would follow the previous behavior and models. Also,as a step ahead, if classical models are applicable as best fit,then the extent of percentage variation applicable for actualtraffic data.III
 
T
RAFFIC CHARACTERIZATION AND
A
 NALYSIS OF TRAFFICDATA SETS
.In a Mobile network, traffic refers to the accumulatednumber of communication channels occupied by all users. For each user, the call arrivals can be divided into two categories:incoming calls and outgoing calls. Since every incoming callfor one user must be originated from an outgoing call of another user, we only need to consider outgoing calls fromeach user when we analyze the network traffic. Therefore, if not specified, we consider all outgoing calls as call arrival inmobile network for analysis purpose.All Outgoing calls are initiated randomly; if a call arrivesand the communication is successfully established, both thecaller and the receiver will be engaged for certain duration.The duration of the holding time is also a random variable.Thus, the traffic load depends on the rate of call arrivals andthe holding time for each call. Generally, Trafficcharacteristics of mobile network are typically measured interms of the average activity during the busiest hour or peak hour of a day[15].This paper presents a design approach to characterize themobility related traffic parameters in the presence of realtraffic conditions in urban area and rural area base on Cellcoverage. This includes the distribution of the arrival processes and the channel holding time.We analyzed sets of GSM telephone traffic data, collectedfor billing and traffic monitoring purpose which include callarrival time i.e. (Termination point of call) and the duration of calls at particular cell site. In addition, we also consider trafficother then voice calls like SMS service which may also affectthe network performance. Un-answered calls attempt could not be recorded and also no information was recorded to trace theuser mobility between the cells, neither was they felt necessary,as totality of the calls were recorded and attributed to theoriginating cell.All unsuccessful repeated call attempts, the impact of handovers and congestion were not taken into considerationfor present analysis. The different graphs have been plotted tofind the relation between the actual data and the classicalmodels.[A].
Analysis of peak traffic
We plot the graph of total traffic offered in erlangs at eachcell site. We had considered scale is discrete with one hour intervals to find the number of peaks occurs during the 24hours intervals. Next, we have calculated the average trafficload, peak hour load and the peakdness factor to find the trafficvariation and peakdness range for given number of channels. Inour calculation, peakdness factor has been defined asIdeally the value of peakdness factor lie within the range of 1 to 5 [16].Greater the range of peakdness factor means thatserver is over utilized and there may be chance of call drop.Total traffic characteristics depend upon actual traffic loadcarried by the server. This carried load consist of traffic other then voice service like SMS originated; which also affect theutilization of server performance. As a result it is important toevaluate the rate of the SMS service to predict the behavior of mobile users along with performance. Also, now a days,several companies offer bulk messages delivery in slack hour atvery cheap cost. As a result, number of users may use thisservice at redundant which may affect the quality of the voiceservice provided by the operators.
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, 2011
The increasing competition may also motivate the operators tocompromise the voice service quality and as a result there may be increase in call drop rate. To find the exact traffic, we mustconsider the nature of SMS service used by the mobile users.
Fig 1.Actual Carried traffic (in erlangs) and No. of SMS originated ateach hour.
 Fig 1 shows the No. of SMS generated at each hour alongwith carried traffic load. It shows the correlation between themaximum Number of SMS generated and actual traffic (voice)load to match with peak hour traffic or during slack hours.From this observation, we can find the exact No. of TCH(Traffic channels) and SDCCH (Stand alone Dedicated controlChannel) Channels require to serve the given traffic load.
[B]. Verification of Poisson Model
In this section we examine the relevance and verificationof Poisson Model. As discussed above, the Incoming callarrival rate follows the traditional Poisson distribution wherethe call arrivals in one second have to be perfectly uncorrelatedwith the Call arrival in other seconds [17].For this analysis, thearrival rates of incoming calls have to be determined from thecollected data sets and tried to correlate with Poissondistribution model. The arrival rate of calls is λ (t) and it has pseudo periodic trend for both the urban and rural area and arefound approximately same at two different days. The probability distributions for actual call arrivals plotted againstIdeal Poisson arrival in one peak hour has been shown in fig 3and corresponding percentage variation between the ideal andactual pattern are shown in table2.Fig 2.Call Arrival pattern for ideal Poisson distributionThe fig 2 shows the call arrival pattern of practical datawith arrival rate of 20 at a particular hour. The graph has beenextended to predict probability distribution of arrival of 37 callsduring the hour with mean arrival rate of 20.The following relation was used to draw the graph-Where both mean and variance is equal to λTFig 3. The distribution of call arrival with Ideal arrival rate
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