(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, 2011
An Analysis of GSM Handover based On Real Data
Bhavana Jharia Gopal Chandra Manna
ME Student, Communication System Associate Professor, Depptt. Of EC Sr. General Manager
Engineering Branch Jabalpur Engineering College BSNL, JabalpurJabalpur Engineering College, M.P., India M.P, India M.P, Indiaishathakur_4@yahoo.com email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Handover decisions in GSM networks are based on thedifference in received signal strength, between the serving celland the neighboring cells. But in a practical scenario,particularly in city area ,considering difference in signal levelstrength alone , is an inferior criteria to decide handover issue,because the towers are in close proximity & the absolute signalstrength is quite good to continue the communication ,withoutmuch difficulty .Also, in these environments, multipathreflections, scattering due to moving vehicles & diffraction frommultiple building edges ,contributes to poor signal quality, henceforcing the mobile to transmit more power to continue thecommunication.Continuation of an active call is one of the mostimportant quality measures in the cellular systems. Handoverprocess enables a cellular system to provide such a facility bytransferring an active call from one cell to another. Differentapproaches have been proposed and applied in order to achievebetter handover service, by various researchers. The principalparameters considered in the present work, which are used toevaluate handover techniques are: Received signal quality(RxQual),
, Received signal level, MS-BS distance, transmitpower (TxPower) & aggregate C/I.In the present work, thorough analysis has been done forthe received signal strength difference threshold, along withother RF quality parameters. To ensure best performance to allmobile users at all times and all locations an active set of parameters has been calculated for critical values along withsignal strength difference threshold.
Received signal quality (RxQual), FER, Received signal level (RxLev on uplink and downlink), MS-BS distance, transmit power (TxPower) & aggregate C/I.
Traditional handover algorithms are based on relativesignal strength, relative signal strength with threshold, relativesignal strength with hysteresis, relative signal strength withhysteresis and threshold  . Handover analysis uses fuzzylogic based prediction techniques
also  .Later anextensive study found that the received signal strength(RxLev) & the received signal quality (RxQual), are the primeparameters in the handover decision. However ,consideringthe RxLev and RxQual ,alone, is not sufficient to provide theaccurate result for optimum handover solution .So, there is aneed of a new handover scheme which not only considerRxQual and RxLev ,but also some other important parameters,for a better handover process .In the present work ,we focus our attention onincorporating some more decision criterion in the handoveralgorithm .After an extensive study of the GSM measurementreports obtained from a telecom company, it has beenvalidated that the transmit power (TxPower) ,aggregate C/I &the FER ,should be given due importance in the handoverdecision ,along with RxLev and RxQual. The reason behindincorporating these parameters is explained ahead.In the dedicated mode, TxPower consumes the batterypower of the mobile handset .Normally the acceptable rangeof the TxPower is between 5 and 15, where 5 is the desiredvalue. .Hence, TxPower has been proposed to be an importantparameter in the handover decision process. The
mayincrease in two cases (1) If the complete frame is lost ordestroyed in transmission and (2) Frame could not be obtainedbecause error correcting code is destroyed .Hence, FER is aconsiderable parameter in handover decision. Similarly theinterference level received from all the interference sources inthe system should be given due importance in the criterion listfor the handover decision .The desired carrier level and theinterfering carrier level are calculated and measured indBm.For convenience, we normally use the
ratio todetermine whether an interference case is acceptable or not.Since in the real time cellular systems, handover failuremay occur due to a number of practical issues, by introducingadditional criteria for handover decision making, spurioushandover can be avoided to a large extent. Conventionaltechniques suffer from inefficiencies caused by the fact that inthe practical scenario, particularly in city area, difference insignal level strength has proved to be an inferior criteria todecide handover issue .To overcome these limitations, theauthors has proposed an active set of parameters along withtheir optimum values which can be used to provide betterhandover decision efficiency.