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2D Image Morphing With Wrapping Using Vector Quantization Based Colour Transition

2D Image Morphing With Wrapping Using Vector Quantization Based Colour Transition

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Published by ijcsis
There is inherent lack of the motion in the photographs and paintings so they convey limited information. Using image morphing, it is now possible to add 2D motion to still photographs by moving and blending image pixels in creative ways. Image morphing is an image processing technique which seamlessly transforms one image into another image. Color transition method used in morphing play an important role as it
decides the quality of the intermediate images generated by controlling the color blending rate. By blending colors uniformly throughout the process of morphing good morph sequence is generated. This morph sequence is balanced and contains earlier morphs similar to source and last morphs similar to the target image. In case of face image morphing if features are not aligned properly then double exposure is seen in the eyes and mouth region and this spoils entire morph sequence. In this paper new image wrapping and vector quantization based color transition methods are proposed for 2D face image morphing. Wrapping aligns the facial features and aids in generating good morphs and color transition blends colors during morphing.
There is inherent lack of the motion in the photographs and paintings so they convey limited information. Using image morphing, it is now possible to add 2D motion to still photographs by moving and blending image pixels in creative ways. Image morphing is an image processing technique which seamlessly transforms one image into another image. Color transition method used in morphing play an important role as it
decides the quality of the intermediate images generated by controlling the color blending rate. By blending colors uniformly throughout the process of morphing good morph sequence is generated. This morph sequence is balanced and contains earlier morphs similar to source and last morphs similar to the target image. In case of face image morphing if features are not aligned properly then double exposure is seen in the eyes and mouth region and this spoils entire morph sequence. In this paper new image wrapping and vector quantization based color transition methods are proposed for 2D face image morphing. Wrapping aligns the facial features and aids in generating good morphs and color transition blends colors during morphing.

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Published by: ijcsis on Aug 13, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
 , No.
 , 201
1
2D Image Morphing With Wrapping Using Vector Quantization Based Colour Transition
Face Image morphing
Dr. H.B. Kekre
Senior Professor, Computer Engineering,MP’STME,SVKM’S NMIMS University,Mumbai,India
Tanuja K. Sarode
 Asst.Professor,Thadomal ShahaniEngineering College,Mumbai, India
Suchitra M. Patil
Lecturer,K.J.Somiaya College of Engineering,Mumbai, India
 
 Abstract 
 — 
 
There is inherent lack of the motion in thephotographs and paintings so they convey limited information.Using image morphing, it is now possible to add 2D motion to stillphotographs by moving and blending image pixels in creativeways. Image morphing is an image processing technique whichseamlessly transforms one image into another image. Colortransition method used in morphing play an important role as itdecides the quality of the intermediate images generated bycontrolling the color blending rate. By blending colors uniformlythroughout the process of morphing good morph sequence isgenerated. This morph sequence is balanced and contains earliermorphs similar to source and last morphs similar to the targetimage. In case of face image morphing if features are not alignedproperly then double exposure is seen in the eyes and mouthregion and this spoils entire morph sequence. In this paper newimage wrapping and vector quantization based color transitionmethods are proposed for 2D face image morphing. Wrappingaligns the facial features and aids in generating good morphs andcolor transition blends colors during morphing.
 Keywords- image wrapping, colour transition, facenormalization vector quantization, codebook interpolation.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
Image morphing is commonly referred to as the animatedtransformation of one digital image to the other. It is a powerful tool and has widespread use for achieving specialvisual effect in the entertainment industry [1]. It is basically animage processing technique used for the metamorphosis fromone image to another. The idea is to get a sequence of intermediate images which when put together with the originalimages would represent the change from one image to theother.The process of image morphing is realized by couplingimage wrapping with colour interpolation. Image wrappingapplies 2D geometric transformations on the images to retaingeometric alignment between their features, while colour interpolation blends their colour [1].Image morphing can be done with or without wrapping.Basically for image morphing both the input images arerequired to be of same size. Even if the input images are of same sizes the faces in these images need not be of same size.Due to this there is misalignment in facial features like eyesand mouth which add double exposure and ghosting effect inmorphs generated during morphing process which spoils entireanimation. Hence for effective image morphing wrapgeneration step is must. An effective image morphing is doneusing following three steps [1].1. Control points extraction2. Wrap generation3. Transition controlThe process of control point extraction defines the control points or landmarks to be used for image wrapping for e.g. inface morphing the landmarks would be from eyebrows, eyes,nose, and mouth and face edges. This is a difficult process andin most of the cases is performed manually. Once these control points have been extracted from the two original images, theimages can be wrapped.Image wrapping is defined as a method for deforming adigital image to different shapes [4]. This process transformsthe images by moving the control point locations in one imageto match the ones in another. Only one i.e. either source or destination image is wrapped with respect to other image for face normalization. For wrapping both the source and targetimages are made equal in size.Once the pixels are in position the colour transition blendsthe colours of wrapped image with other one and hencetransforms one image into another [4]. In this method, thecolour of each pixel is interpolated over time from the firstimage value to the corresponding second image value [6].II.
 
ELATED
W
ORK 
 Before the development of image wrapping and morphing,image transformations were generally achieved through thecross-dissolve of images, where one image is faded out andother image is faded in but this is not so effective in signifyingthe actual metamorphosis [1]. The results of this are poor;owing to the double-exposure and ghosting effect apparent in
75http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
 , No.
 , 201
1
 
misaligned regions i.e. in face images generally it is most prominent in the eyes and the mouth regions.Over the past few years many image morphing techniqueshave been proposed. Effectiveness of the image morphing liesin the feature point selections and wrap generation. One of thetechniques used in wrap generations is triangles basedinterpolation. In this based on the control points the image isdissected into triangles and then each triangle is interpolatedindependently [2]. While using this method formation of  problematic thin triangles can be avoided using Delaunaytriangulation [3].Morphing human faces with automatic control point’sselection and color transition [4] discuses use of combinationof a face detection neural network [5], edge detection andsmoothing filters. A triangulation method is used as the wrapalgorithm [6] while a method based on the one dimensionalGaussian function is applied in color transition control or  blending of wrapped images.A prototypical Automatic Facial Image Manipulationsystem (AFIM) for face morphing and shape normalization(wraping) is proposed in [6]. In this AFIM system, the feature points are extracted automatically by using active shape model(ASM) [7] or extracted manually. Image wrapping is doneusing mesh wrapping [8]. And then blending of the wrappedimage with other input image is based on cross dissolve.Field morphing proposed by Beier and Nelly [9] is basedon control lines in the source and destination images. Thecorrespondence between the lines in the both the imagesdefines the coordinate mapping. Also two pass mesh wrapping[1] followed by cross- dissolve generates quality morphs.Image morphing based on the pixel transformation is proposed in [10] and is mainly for blending two imageswithout wrapping. In this pixel based morphing is achieved bythe replacement of pixels values followed by a simpleneighboring operation. This method is restricted for the grayscale (Portable Gray Map or PGM) images only.III.
 
P
ROPOSED
A
LGORITHMS
Simplest way to morph images is to cross dissolve the twoimages. This is not so effective as is gives an effect of fadingout the source image and fading in destination image. Also thedouble exposure effect is visible in significant regions in
 
image, for example in face image morphing it is visible in eyesand mouth region [1].Image morphing applications are everywhere. Hollywoodfilm makers use novel morphing technologies to generatespecial effects, Disney uses morphing to speed up the production of cartoons and art and medical image processingalso use morphing. Among so many image morphingapplications, face morphing is the popular one.Proposed face image morphing here is defined as giventwo input two face images, progressively transform one imageinto the other as smoothly and as fast as possible. Three stepsused here are described below.
 A.
 
Control points selection
First step is to select the control points or features. This istedious, time consuming but the most important step inmorphing. In most of the cases selection of control points isdone manually. Also the selection of the control points isdirectly related to the quality of the morphs generated hencehas to be done carefully.Total 32 control points are used here for morphing. Allthese control point are selected from most sensitive parts of face like nose, eyes and mouth. Nine major Control pointsused here are centre of left eye, centre of right eye, tip of nose, both corners of mouth and all other points as shown in Fig. 1,are selected manually.For face normalization four major control point’s ling onthe rectangular window covering the face in image areselected. Remaining control points locations is decided basedon the major control points and are shown in Fig 2. Control points selection is done for both source and target images.
Figure 1. Location of nine major Control points and image partitioning basedon itFigure 2. Image partitioned into 17 triangles and other 32 Control pointslocation
 B.
 
Wrap generation
Based on 32 control points source and target images are partitioned into 17 rectangles as shown in Fig 2. Thenrectangle to rectangle mapping from source and target imagesis performed. And finally by computing scale factor down or up scaling of each rectangle in source image with respect tothe corresponding rectangle in the target image is performed
76http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
 , No.
 , 201
1
using nearest neighbour interpolation and wrap of sourceimage is generated.Face normalization with scaling makes faces in both sourceand target image of same size and helps to align the features of source image according to the target image.
C.
 
Colour transition
The colour transition method used in image morphingdecides the quality of the intermediate images generated bycontrolling the colour blending rate. And this rate depends onweight used by colour transition method. If the colour  blending is done uniformly throughout the morphing process,good morph sequence is generated. Morph sequence hasearlier morphs similar to source and last morphs similar to thetarget image. The middle image in the entire morph sequenceis neither source nor the target image. Hence the quality of morphs depends on the quality of middle images. If it look good then entire sequence looks good.Generally pixel based colour transition like cross dissolve[1] [12], averaging pixels [13] and by merging difference between colour of source and target pixels [12] [13] is done. Inthis paper totally new colour transition methods based onvector quantization are implemented and discussed.Vector Quantization (VQ) techniques employ the processof clustering. Vector Quantization derives a set (codebook) of reference or prototype vectors (code words) from a data set. Inthis manner each element of the data set is represented by onlyone codeword.
 
Various VQ algorithms differ from one another on the basis of the approach employed for cluster formations.VQ is a technique in which a codebook is generated for each image. A codebook is a representation of the entire imagecontaining a definite pixel pattern [14] which is computedaccording to a specific VQ algorithm. The image is dividedinto fixed sized blocks [14] that form the training vector. Thegeneration of the training vector is the first step to cluster formation. Vector Quantization VQ can be defined as amapping function that maps k-dimensional vector space to afinite set CB = {C1, C2, C3, ..…. , CN}. The set CB is calledcodebook consisting of N number of code vectors and eachcode vector Ci = {ci1, ci2, ci3,……, cik} is of dimension k.The key to VQ is the good codebook. Codebook can begenerated in by clustering algorithms [14]-[16]. Using thiscodebook original image can be reconstructed with someimperceptible colour loss.Two different algorithms to generate codebooks are given below.
1)
 
 Linde – Buzo – Gray algorithm (LBG):
For the purpose of explaining this algorithm, twodimensional vector space as shown in Fig.3 is considered. Inthis figure each point represents two consecutive pixels. In thisalgorithm centroid is computed as the first code vector C1 for the training set. In Fig. 3 two vectors v1 & v2 are generated byadding constant error to the code vector. Euclidean distancesof all the training vectors are computed with vectors v1 & v2and two clusters are formed based on nearest of v1 or v2.Procedure is repeated for these two clusters to generate four new clusters. This procedure is repeated for every new cluster until the required size of codebook is reached [14].
Figure 3. LBG for 2 dimensional cases
2)
 
 Kekre’s Proportionate Error algorithm (KPE):
In this algorithm a proportionate error is added to thecentroid to generate two vectors v1 & v2 [14]. The error ratiois decided by magnitude of coordinates of the centroid. Firstminimum element in centroid is obtained and then centroid isdivided throughout by this minimum and error vector isobtained and instead of constant error now this error vector isadded and subtracted from centroid to form cluster. Rest all procedure is same as that of LBG. In this algorithm whileadding proportionate error a safe guard is introduced so thatneither v1 nor v2 go beyond the training vector space. Thisovercomes the disadvantage of the LBG of inefficientclustering.After the codebooks of desired size are generated for bothinput images are generated, these codebooks are interpolated based on difference between them and then intermediateimage frames as source codebook reaches to target codebook are generated by reconstructing the interpolated codebook.Algorithm for codebook interpolation is given below.
Codebook interpolation algorithm:
1.
 
For every training vector in the training set of sourceand target images find the closest code vector fromcorresponding codebooks.2.
 
Save indices of source and target code vector’sobtained in different arrays.3.
 
For each index in two arrays obtained in step 2 getcode vectors form source codebook and targetcodebook.4.
 
Compute difference in these code vectors and divideit by number of intermediate frames.5.
 
In every iteration to generate intermediate images addthis difference vector from step 4 to source codebook.6.
 
Reconstruct image using this codebook and display itas new intermediate frame.IV.
 
ESULTS
A
 ND
D
ISCUSSIONS
 
77http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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