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Comparison study on AAMRP and IODMRP in MANETS

Comparison study on AAMRP and IODMRP in MANETS

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Published by ijcsis
Mobile Ad-Hoc network is self configuring network of moving routers associated with wireless network.
In these networks there is no fixed topology due to the mobility of nodes, interference, multipath propagation and path loss. The mobile nodes co-operate with each other to perform a particular task. Since there is a lack of infrastructure and the node mobility s larger than in wired network and even larger in fixed wireless networks, new routing protocols are proposed to handle the new challenges. Each new protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages. This paper focuses on the comparison between the two Multicast Routing Protocols AAMRP and IODMRP.
Mobile Ad-Hoc network is self configuring network of moving routers associated with wireless network.
In these networks there is no fixed topology due to the mobility of nodes, interference, multipath propagation and path loss. The mobile nodes co-operate with each other to perform a particular task. Since there is a lack of infrastructure and the node mobility s larger than in wired network and even larger in fixed wireless networks, new routing protocols are proposed to handle the new challenges. Each new protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages. This paper focuses on the comparison between the two Multicast Routing Protocols AAMRP and IODMRP.

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Comparison study on AAMRP andIODMRP in MANETS
 
Tanvir KahlonPanjab UniversityChandigarh,IndiaSukesha SharmaPanjab UniversityChandigarh, India
Abstract
 — Mobile Ad-Hoc network is self configuringnetwork of moving routers associated with wireless network.In these networks there is no fixed topology due to the mobilityof nodes, interference, multipath propagation and path loss. Themobile nodes co-operate with each other to perform a particulartask. Since there is a lack of infrastructure and the node mobilityis larger than in wired network and even larger in fixed wirelessnetworks, new routing protocols are proposed to handle the newchallenges. Each new protocol has its own advantages anddisadvantages. This paper focuses on the comparison betweenthe two Multicast Routing Protocols AAMRP and IODMRP.
Keywords
 — 
Multicast, Ad-Hoc wireless networks (MANETS), AAMRP, IODMRP,ODMRP
 I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 A mobile ad hoc network is a wireless network that is based onmobile devices[1]. There is no need for existing infrastructure.The node acts as a sender, receiver or relay. Every node willdiscover the routing path by using route request and routereply packets. The responsibilities for organizing andcontrolling the network are distributed among the terminalsthemselves. The entire network is mobile, and the individualterminals are allowed to move freely. . Route maintenance isalso required as the node changes its position so its routealso. The very useful characteristics of MANETS limited bandwidth due to radio waves. Mobile ad-hoc network is presently applicable everywhere in real life like in businessmeetings outside the offices, Bluetooth , etc.
 A.
 
 APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS 
The following Table provides an overview of present andfuture MANET applications [2].
Applications
 
Possible scenarios/servicesEntertainment
 • Multi-user games.• Robotic pets.• Outdoor Internet access.• Wireless P2P networking.• Theme parks.
Sensor networks
• Home applications: smart sensor nodes and actuators embedded inconsumer electronics to allow endusers to manage home deviceslocally and remotely.• Environmental applicationsinclude tracking the movements of animals chemical/biologicaldetection, precision agriculture, etc.
Emergency services
 • Search and rescue operations.• Disaster recovery.• Environmental disasters (e.g.,earthquakes, hurricanes)• Policing and fire fighting.• Supporting doctors and nurses inhospitals
Commercial andcivilianenvironments
 • E-Commerce• Business: mobile offices.• Vehicular Services: road or accident guidance•Local ad hoc network with nearbyvehicles for road/accident guidance.• Networks of visitors at airports.
Home andenterpriseNetworking
 • Home/Office Wireless Networking(WLAN)• Personal Area Network • Conferences• Networks at construction sites.
EducationalApplications
 • Setup virtual classrooms or conference rooms.• Setup ad hoc communicationduring conferences, etc• Universities and campus settings.Table 1: Applications of mobile ad-hoc networksII.
 
MANET
 
MULTICAST
 
ROUTINGMulticasting is the sending of network traffic to a group of endpoints. The problems like scarcity of bandwidth, shortlifetime of the nodes due to power constraints, dynamic
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 201195http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
topology caused by the mobility of nodes put in force todesign a simple, scalable, robust and energy efficient routing protocols for multicast environment. Multicasting [3] candefined as transmission of data packets to severaldestinations at the same time. Transmitter may be a single or multiple nodes which are said to be “one to many” nodes or “ many to many” nodes.In general multicast routing is achieved using either 
 
Source based-when no. of multicast senders in a groupare small( e.g.-video on demand application)
 
Core based trees-uses a multicast tree shared by allmembers of a group.Multicast forwarding is based on nodes rather than on links.
 A. MULTICAST TOPOLOGY 
Topology[1] is defined as how multicast session's nodes arearranged in a known topology shape. Considering the type of topology created by the routing protocol, multicast protocolsare often categorized in the following groups:
 
Tree-based multicast routing protocol
 
Mesh-based multicast routing protocol
 
Hybrid approachesTree-based proposals are also divided into two subcategories:
 
In source-based tree approaches, each source buildsits single tree.
 
In shared-based tree approaches, all sources shareonly a single tree that is controlled only by one or more specific nodes.The following is the multicast routing protocols under topology viewpoint:Fig 1: Multicast routing protocol topologyIII.
 
OVERVIEW
 
OF
 
ODMR,ADMR,MAODV
 
M
ULTICAST
P
ROTOCOLS
 
 A.
 
ON-DEMAND MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOL(ODMRP)
A mesh-based demand-driven multicast protocol namely On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) [4, 5] whichis, similar to Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol inwired network is considered. In this protocol, at first step wehave a JOIN QUERY ie. A source floods this query messagethroughout the network. A multicast tree is build by a source by periodically flooding the control packets throughout thenetwork. Nodes that are members of the group respond to theflood and join the tree. Each node receiving this messagestores the previous hop from which it received the message.Following the previous hop stored at each node, the groupmember responds by sending the JOIN REPLY to the sourcewhen it receives the JOIN QUERY. A soft forwarding state iscreated for a group of nodes that forward a JOIN REPLY is to be renewed by subsequent JOIN REPLY messages. If thenode is already an established forwarding member for thatgroup, then it suppresses any further JOIN REPLYforwarding in order to reduce channel overhead. Figure 2shows the on demand route and Mesh creation.Figure 2: On Demand Route and Mesh CreationThe above process constructs (or updates) the routes fromsources to receivers and builds a mesh of nodes, the“forwarding group”. Figure 3 visualizes the concept of forwarding group.Figure 3: Concept of forwarding groupThe forwarding group (FG) is a set of nodes which is in chargeof forwarding multicast packets. All nodes inside the “bubble”(multicast members and forwarding group nodes) forwardmulticast data packets. Note that a multicast receiver also can
Join QueryJoin Reply
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 201196http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 be a forwarding group node if it is on the path between amulticast source and another receiver. The mesh providesricher connectivity among multicast members compared withtrees. Route redundancy among forwarding group helpsovercome node displacements and channel fading. Hence,unlike trees, frequent reconfigurations are not required.The basic trade-off in ODMRP is between throughput andoverhead. Throughput can be increased by source by sendingmore frequent JOIN QUERY messages. Each messagerebuilds the multicast mesh, repairing any breaks that haveoccurred since the last query, thus increasing the chance for subsequent packets to be delivered correctly. Increasing thequery rate also increases the overhead of the protocol becauseeach query is flooded.
 B.
 
 ADAPTIVE DEMAND DRIVEN MULTCAST ROUTING PROTOCOL(ADMR)
ADMR [6] also creates a source specific multicast trees ,using an on-demand mechanism that only creates a tree if there is minimum one source and one receiver active for thegroup. There is a periodical network-wide flood by the sourceat a very low rate in order to recover from network partitions.In addition, monitoring of the packet forwarding rate by theforwarding nodes in the multicast tree is very important inorder to determine when the tree has broken or the source has become silent. If a link has broken, a node can initiate arepair on its own, and if the source has stopped sending, thenany forwarding state is silently removed. Receivers alsomonitor the packet reception rate and can re-join themulticast tree if intermediate nodes have been unable toreconnect the tree.MULTICAST SOLICITATION message is flooded by thereceiver throughout the network to join a multicast group.When a source receives this message, KEEP-ALIVE messageis sent to that receiver confirming that the receiver can jointhat source. The receiver responds to the KEEP-ALIVE bysending a RECEIVER JOIN along the reverse path. Inaddition to the receiver’s join mechanism, a source periodically sends a network-wide flood of a RECEIVER DISCOVERY message. Receivers that get this messagerespond to it with a RECEIVER JOIN if they are not alreadyconnected to the multicast tree. If a node misses a definedthreshold of consecutive packets it begins a repair process.Receivers do a repair by broadcasting a new MULTICASTSOLICITATION message. Nodes on the multicast tree send aREPAIR NOTIFICATION message down its sub tree tocancel the repair of downstream nodes. The most upstreamnode transmits a hop-limited flood of a RECONNECTmessage. Any forwarder receiving this message forwards theRECONNECT up the multicast tree to the source. The sourcein return responds to the RECONNECT by sending aRECONNECT REPLY as a unicast message that follows the path of the RECONNECT back to the repairing node.Forwarding state is maintained by nodes on the multicast tree.If it is a last hop router in the tree it is expected to receiveeither PASSIVE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (if a downstreamnode forwards the packet) or an EXPLICITACKNOWLEDGMENT. Forwarding node expires its state if defined thresholds of consecutive acknowledgments aremissed.
C.
 
MULTICAST AD HOC ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR(MAODV) ROUTING PROTOCOL
MAODV protocol [7,8] is an extension of the AODV unicast protocol. This protocol uses a broadcast route discoverymechanism employing the route request (RREQ) and routereply (RREP) messages for discovering the multicast routes ondemand. A mobile node originates a RREQ message when itwishes to join a multicast group, or has data to send to amulticast group but does not have a route to that group. Onlymulticast group member may respond to a join RREQ. If theRREQ is not a join request, any node with a fresh enoughroute (based on group sequence number) to the multicastgroup may respond. If an intermediate node receives a joinRREQ for a multicast group of which it is not a member, or itreceives a RREQ and does not have a route to that group, itrebroadcasts the RREQ to its neighbours. As the RREQ is broadcast across the network, nodes set up pointers toestablish the reverse route in their route tables. A nodereceiving an RREQ first updates its route table to record thesequence number and the next hop information for the sourcenode. This reverse route entry may later be used to relay aresponse back to the source. For join RREQs, an additionalentry is added to the multicast route table and is not activatedunless the route is selected to be part of the multicast tree. If anode receives a join RREQ for a multicast group, it may replyif it is a member of the multicast group’s tree and its recordedsequence number for the multicast group is at least as great asthat contained in the RREQ. The responding node updates itsroute and multicast route tables by placing the requestingnode’s next hop information in the tables and then unicasts anRREP back to the source. As nodes along the path to thesource receive the RREP, they add both a route table and amulticast route table entry for the node from which theyreceived the RREP thereby creating the forward path. When asource node broadcasts an RREQ for a multicast group, itoften receives more than one reply. The source node keeps thereceived route with the greatest sequence number and shortesthop count to the nearest member of the multicast tree for aspecified period of time, and disregards other routes. At theend of this period, it enables the selected next hop in itsmulticast route table, and unicasts an activation message(MACT) to this selected next hop. The next hop, on receivingthis message, enables the entry for the source node in itsmulticast routing table. If this node is a member of themulticast tree, it does not propagate the message any further.However, if this node is not a member of the multicast tree, itwould have received one or more RREPs from its neighbours.It keeps the best next hop for its route to the multicast group,unicasts MACT to that next hop, and enables thecorresponding entry in its multicast route table. This process
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 201197http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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