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An Improvement Study Report of Face Detection Techniques using Adaboost and SVM

An Improvement Study Report of Face Detection Techniques using Adaboost and SVM

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Published by ijcsis
In this paper, we have proposed a survey report of face detection techniques using Adaboost and SVM. Face Detection in computer vision and pattern recognition technology as an important subject has high academic value and commercial value. Face detection is a challenging and interesting problem. Face detection is a very an active research topic in the field of computer vision and pattern recognition, which is widely applied in the face recognition ,man-machine interface ,visual communication and so on.
In this paper, we have proposed a survey report of face detection techniques using Adaboost and SVM. Face Detection in computer vision and pattern recognition technology as an important subject has high academic value and commercial value. Face detection is a challenging and interesting problem. Face detection is a very an active research topic in the field of computer vision and pattern recognition, which is widely applied in the face recognition ,man-machine interface ,visual communication and so on.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011
An Improvement Study Report of Face DetectionTechniques using Adaboost and SVM
Rajeev Kumar Singh
 LNCT Bhopal,Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh-462042, IndiaAnubhav SharmaRITS Bhopal,Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh-462042, India
Prof. Alka Gulati
 LNCT Bhopal,Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh-462042, IndiaHarsh VaziraniIndian Institute of Information Technology andManagement Gwalior,Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh-474010, India
 Abstract
— In this paper, we have proposed a survey report of face detection techniques using Adaboost and SVM. FaceDetection in computer vision and pattern recognition technologyas an important subject has high academic value and commercialvalue. Face detection is a challenging and interesting problem.Face detection is a very an active research topic in the field of computer vision and pattern recognition, which is widely appliedin the face recognition ,man-machine interface ,visualcommunication and so on.
 Keywords-component; formatting; style; styling; insert (keywords)
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Face Detection has received much more attention in recentyears. It is the first step in many applications such as facerecognition, facial expression analysis, content based imageretrieval, surveillance system and intelligent human computerinteraction. Therefore, the performance of these systemsdepends on the efficiency of face detection technique. Thecomprehensive survey on face detection has been given out [1,4] .These approaches utilize techniques such as AdaboostAlgorithm [ 2,3 ][ 26 ] ,Neural Networks [ 5,6 ] ,Skin Color[7,8 ] and Support Vector Machine [24,25].Face detection is a computer technology that determines thelocations and sizes of human faces in arbitrary (digital) images.It detects facial features and ignores anything else, such asbuildings, trees and bodies. As a key problem in the personface information processing and management technology.Face detection has received much more attention in recentyears. It is the first step in many applications such as facerecognition, facial expression analysis, surveillance, securitysystems and human computer interface (HCI). Therefore, theperformance of these systems depends on the efficiency of face detection process.
2.
 
METHODS OF FACE DETECTION
Techniques for face detection in image are classified into fourcategories.
Knowledge-based Method
s Knowledge based methods [9]detect faces based on some roles which capture therelationships among facial features. It depends on using therules about human facial feature. It is easy to come up withsimple rules to describe the features of a face and theirrelationships. But the difficulty of it is how to translate humanknowledge into well known rules in order to detect faces indifferent poses. For example, a face often appears in an imagewith two eyes that are symmetric to each other, a nose, and amouth. If try to define detailed rules then there may be a largenumber of faces stratifying the rules. Few rules are unable todescribe the face exactly. This approach is good for frontalface image.
Template matching methods: Template
matching methods[10] find the similarity between input image and the template.Template matching methods use the correlation betweenpattern in the input image and stored standard patterns of awhole face
 / 
non
 
face features to determine the presence of aface or non face features. If the window contains a patternwhich is close to the target pattern, then the window is judgedas containing a face.
Feature based method:
Feature-based methods use somefeatures (such as color [11], shape [12], and texture) to extractfacial features to obtain face locations. This approach dependson extraction of facial features that are not affected byvariations in lighting conditions, pose, and other factors. Thesemethods classified according to the extracted features[1].Feature-based techniques depend on feature derivation andanalysis to gain the required knowledge about faces. Featuresmay be skin color, face shape, or facial features like eyes,nose, etc. Feature based methods are preferred for real timesystems where the multi-resolution\window scanning used byimage based methods are not applicable. Human skin color isan effective feature used to detect faces, although differentpeople have different skin color, several studies have shownthat the basic difference based on their intensity rather than
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011
their chrominance. Texture of human faces has a specialtexture that used to separate them from different objects.Facial Features method depends on detecting features of theface. Some users use the edges to detect the features of theface, and then grouping the edges. Some others use the blocksand the streaks instead of edges. For example, the face modelconsists of two dark blocks and three light blocks to representeyes, cheekbones, and nose. The model uses streaks torepresent the outlines of the faces like, eyebrows, and lips.Multiple Features methods use several combined facialfeatures to locate or detect faces. First, find the face by usingfeatures like skin color, size and shape and then verifyingthese candidates using detailed features such as eyebrows,nose, and hair.
Machine learning methods:
Machine learning methods [13,14] use techniques from statistical analysis and machinelearning to find the relevant characteristics of faces and nonfaces. We now give a definition of face detection given anarbitrary image, the goal of face detection is to determinewhether or not there are any faces in the image and, if present,return the image location and extent of each face. Thechallenges associated with face detection can be attributed tothe following factors:
Pose:
The images of a face vary due to the relative
Camera:
face pose (frontal, 45 degree, profile, upside down),and some facial features such as an eye or the nose maybecome partially or wholly occluded.
Structural components:
Facial features such as beards,mustaches and glasses may or may not be present and there isa great deal of variability among these components includingshape, color, and size.
Facial expression
: The appearance of faces is directlyaffected by a person’s facial expression.
Occlusion:
Faces may be partially occluded by other objects.In an image with a group of people, some faces may partiallyocclude other faces.
Image orientation
: Face images directly vary for differentrotations about the camera’s optical axis.
Imaging conditions:
When the image is formed, factors suchas lighting (spectra, source distribution and intensity) andcamera characteristics (sensor response, lenses) affect theappearance of a face. There are many closely related problemsof face detection. Face localization aims to determine theimage position of a single face, this is a simplified detectionproblem with the assumption that an input image contains onlyone face [15], [16]. The goal of facial feature detection is todetect the presence and location of features, such as eyes,nose, nostrils, eyebrow, mouth, lips, ears, etc., with theassumption that there is only one face in an image [17], [18].
Face Detection Using AdaBoost
Viola and Jones proposed atotally corrective face Detection algorithm in [2]. They used aset of Haar-like Features to construct a classifier. Every weak classifier had a simple threshold on one of the extractedfeatures. AdaBoost classifier was then used to choose a smallnumber of important features and combines them in a cascadestructure to decide whether an image is a face or a nonface.AdaBoost, short for Adaptive Boosting, is a machine learningalgorithm, formulated by Yoav Freund and Robert Schapire. Itis a meta-algorithm, and can be used in conjunction with manyother learning algorithms to improve their performance.AdaBoost is adaptive in the sense that subsequent classifiersbuilt are weakening in favor of those instances misclassifiedby previous classifiers. AdaBoost is sensitive to noisy data andoutliers. Otherwise, it is less susceptible to the over fittingproblem than most learning algorithms.Lang Li Yang [26], a new algorithm was presented combiningeffectively the optimizing rect-features and weak classifierlearning algorithm, which can largely improve the hit-rate anddecrease the train time. Optimized rect-feature means thatwhen searching rect-feature we can establish a growth steplength of the rect-feature and reduce its features. And the newclassifier training method is seeking the weak classifier errorrate directly which can avoid the iterative training, the staticsprobability distribution and any other time consuming process.In this paper reduces training time cost and compared withconventional Adaboost algorithm. It can improve the detectionspeed on the high detection accuracy.
Haar-like Features:
 
A set of Haar-like features used as the input features to thecascade classifier, are shown in Fig. 1. Computation of Haar-like features can be accelerated using an intermediate imagerepresentation called the integral image. An integral imagewas defined as the sum of all pixel values (in an image) aboveand to the left, including itself.Figure.1. Example of Haar like features [19]
Adaboost Learning:
 
AdaBoost is an algorithm forconstructing a composite classifier by sequentially trainingclassifiers while putting more and more emphasis on certainpatterns. A weak classifier is defined by applying the featureto images in the training set, feature by feature. It can reducesthe sizes of the feature set, it can be selected a limited numberof best features that discriminate faces from non-faces andalso complements each other. The Adaboost algorithmchanges the weights used in computing the classification errorof weak classifier. A small error is now weighted more andthis ensures that the first best feature and any other featuresimilar to it will not be chosen as the second best feature. Thissecond best feature ideally compliments the first best featurein the sense that it is successful at classifying faces that thefirst best feature e failed on. This process is repeated, T timesfor example, to find as many best features as desired [1]. Eachfeature as a weak classifier votes on whether or not an inputtest image is likely to be a face. Each feature vote is weightedin log-inverse proportion to the error of that feature. So afeature with a smaller error gets a heavier weighted vote,
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011
equivalent to high reliability. It can be summarized as follows:
 
Detection Cascade:
 
In order to greatly improve thecomputational efficiency and to also reduce the false positiverate, a sequence of increasingly more complex classifiers calleda cascade is built. Fig. 2 shows the cascade.
 
Every stage of the cascade either rejects the analyzed window orpasses it to the next stage. Only the last stage may finally acceptthe window. So to be accepted, a window must pass through thewhole cascade, but rejection may happen at any stage. Duringdetection, most sub windows of the analyzed image are veryeasy to reject, so they are rejected at early stage and do not haveto pass the whole cascade. Stages in cascade are constructed bytraining classifiers using AdaBoost.
Face Detection Using Neural Network
Neural networks have been applied successfully in manyPattern Recognition problems, such as optical characterRecognition, Object Recognition, and autonomous robotdriving. Since face detection can be treated as a two classPattern Recognition problem, various neural network architectures have been proposed. The advantage of using neural networks for face detection is the feasibility of training a system to capture the complex classconditional density of face patterns.However, one drawback is that the network architecture has tobe extensively tuned (number of layers, number of nodes,learning rates, etc.) to get exceptional performance. Anearly method using hierarchical neural networks was proposedby Agui et al. [20].A Mohamed [ 13 ] proposes a robust schema for facedetection system via Gaussian mixture model tosegment image based on skin color. After skin and nonskin face candidates' selection, features are extracted directlyfrom discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficientscomputed from these candidates. The back-propagation neuralnetworks are used to train and classify faces based on DCTfeature coefficients in Cb and Cr color spaces. This schemautilizes the skin color information, which is the main featureof face detection. DCT feature values of faces, representingthe data set of skin / non-skin face candidates obtained fromGaussian mixture model are fed into the back-propagationneural networks to classify whether the original imageincludes a face or not. Experimental results shows that theproposed schema is reliable for face detection, and patternfeatures are detected and classified accurately by the back propagation neural networks.Wang Zhanjie [21] paper describes a face detection system forcolor images in presence of varying lighting conditions as wellas complex background. Based on boosting technology, ourmethod discard majority of no-face pixel and then use neuralnetwork detect face rapidly. We have presented a facedetection system for color image using skin colorsegmentation and neural network. At present, detection rate of no front face is not enough. We will continue our efforts inorder to detect various angles of human face quickly.Lamiaa Mostafa [ 6 ] A novel face detection system ispresented in this paper. The system combines two algorithmsfor face detection to achieve better detection rates. The twoalgorithms are skin detection and neural networks. In the firstmodule of the system a skin color model based on normalizedRGB color space is built and used to detect skin regions. Thedetected skin regions are the face candidate regions. In thesecond module of the system, the neural network is createdand trained with training set of faces and non-faces. Thenetwork used is a two layer feed-forward network. The new
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