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Advanced Routing Technology For Fast Internet Protocol Network Recovery

Advanced Routing Technology For Fast Internet Protocol Network Recovery

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Published by ijcsis
As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our communications infrastructure, the slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing problem. To assure RAPID recovery from link and node failures in IP networks, we present a new recovery scheme called numerous Routing Configurations (NRC). Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure. NRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. NRC is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be implemented with only minor changes to existing solutions. In this paper we presenters, and analyze its performance with respect to scalability, endorsement path lengths, and load distribution after a failure. We also show how an estimate of the traffic demands in the network can be used to improve the distribution of the recovered traffic, and thus reduce the chances of congestion when NRC is used.
As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our communications infrastructure, the slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing problem. To assure RAPID recovery from link and node failures in IP networks, we present a new recovery scheme called numerous Routing Configurations (NRC). Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure. NRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. NRC is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be implemented with only minor changes to existing solutions. In this paper we presenters, and analyze its performance with respect to scalability, endorsement path lengths, and load distribution after a failure. We also show how an estimate of the traffic demands in the network can be used to improve the distribution of the recovered traffic, and thus reduce the chances of congestion when NRC is used.

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Published by: ijcsis on Aug 13, 2011
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Advanced Routing Technology For Fast InternetProtocol Network Recovery
1
S. Rajan,
2
Althaf Hussain H.B.,
3
K. Jagannath,
4
G. Surendar Reddy,
5
K.N.Dharanidhar
 1
Associate Professor & Head, Dept. of CSE, Kuppam Engg. College., Kuppam, Chittoor(Dt.), A.P.
2
Associate Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
3
Associate Professor, Dept .of IT, Kuppam Engg. College., Kuppam Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
4
Assistant Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
5
Assistant Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
 Abstract:
As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in ourcommunications infrastructure, the slow convergence orouting protocols after a network failure becomes a growingproblem. To assure RAPID recovery from link and node failures in IPnetworks, we present a new recovery scheme callednumerous Routing Configurations (NRC). Our proposed schemeguarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a singlemechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowingthe root cause of the failure. NRC is strictly connectionless, andassumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. NRC isbased on keeping additional routing information in the routers, andallows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be implementedwith only minor changes to existing solutions. In this paper wepresenters, and analyze its performance with respect to scalability,endorsement path lengths, and load distribution after afailure. We also show how an estimate of the traffic demands in thenetwork can be used to improve the distribution of the recoveredtraffic, and thus reduce the chances of congestion when NRCis used
.I.I
NTRODUCTION
 I recent years the Internet has been transformed from a specialpurpose network to an ubiquitous platform for a wide range of everyday communication services. The demands on Internetreliability and availability have increased accordingly. Adisruption of a link in central parts of a network has thepotential to affect hundreds of thousands of phoneconversations or TCP connections, with obvious adverseeffects. The ability to recover from failures has always been acentral design goal in the Internet [1], IP networks areintrinsically robust, since IGP routing protocols like OSPF aredesigned to update the forwarding information based on thechanged topology after a failure. This re-convergence assumesfull distribution of the new link state to all routers in thenetwork domain. When the new state information is distributed,each router individually calculates new valid routing tables.VACANT
 
SYSTEMIn recent years the Internet has been transformed from aspecial purpose network to an ubiquitous platform for a widerange of everyday communication services. The demands onInternet reliability and availability have increased accordingly.A disruption of a link in central parts of a network has thepotential to affect hundreds of thousands of phone conversationsor TCP connections, with obvious adverse effects. The ability torecover from failures has always been a central design goal inthe Internet [3]. IP networks are intrinsically robust, since IGProuting protocols like OSPF are designed to update theforwarding information based on the changed topology after afailure. This re-convergence assumes full distribution of the newlink state to all routers in the network domain. When the newstate information is distributed, each router individuallycalculates new valid routing tables.This network-wide IP re-convergence is a time consumingprocess, and a link or node failure is typically followed by aperiod of routing instability. During this period, packets may bedropped due to invalid routes. This phenomenon has beenstudied in both IGP [2] and BGP context [3], and has an adverseeffect on real-time applications [4]. Events leading to a re-convergence have been shown to occur frequently [5]. Mucheffort has been devoted to optimizing the different steps of theconvergence of IP routing, i.e., detection, dissemination of information and shortest path calculation, but the convergencetime is still too large for applications with real time demandsANTICIPATED SYSTEMOur proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failurescenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link andnode failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure.NRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destinationbased hop-by-hop forwarding. NRC is based on keepingadditional routing information in the routers, and allows packetforwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011129http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
II. NRC OVERVIEWNRC is based on building a small set of endorsement routingconfigurations, that are used to route recovered traffic onalternate paths after a failure Our NRC approach is threefold.First, we create a set of endorsement configurations, so thatevery network component is excluded from packet forwardingin one the network topology as a graph , with a set of and theassociated link weight function configuration. Second, for eachconfiguration, a standard routing algorithm like OSPF issued tocalculate configuration specific shortest paths and createforwarding tables in each router, based on the configurations.The use of a standard routing algorithm guarantees loop-freeforwarding within one configuration. Finally, we design aforwarding process that takes advantage of the endorsementconfigurations to provide rapid recovery from a componentfailure.Using a standard shortest path calculation, each router creates aset of configuration-specific forwarding tables. For simplicity,we say that a packet is forwarded according to a configuration,meaning that it is forwarded using the forwarding tablecalculated based on that configuration. In this paper we talk about building a separate forwarding table for eachconfiguration, but we believe that more efficient solutions canbe found in a practical implementation.III.
 
GENERATING
 
ENDORSEMENT
 
CONFIGURATIONSA.
 
C
ONFIGURATIONS
S
TRUCTURE
 NRC configurations are defined by the network topology,which is the same in all configurations, and the associated link weights, which differ among configurations.
 
This means that a restricted link always connects an isolatednode to a non-isolated node. An isolated link eitherconnectsFig. 1. Left: node 5 is isolated (shaded color) by setting a highweight on all its connected links (stapled). Only traffic to andfrom the isolated node will use these restricted links. Right: aconfiguration where nodes 1, 4 and 5, and the links 1.2, 3.5 and4.5 are isolated (dotted).an isolated node to a non-isolated node, or it connects twoisolated nodes. Importantly, this means that a link is alwaysisolated in the same configuration as at least one of its attachednodes. These two rules are required by the NRC forwardingprocess described in Section IV in order to give correctforwarding without knowing the root cause of failure. When wetalk of a endorsement configurationB.
 
A
LGORITHM
 The number and internal structure of endorsementconfigurations in a complete set for a given topology may varydepending on the construction model. If more configurations arecreated, fewer links and nodes need to be isolated perconfiguration, giving a richer (more connected) backbone ineach configuration. On the other hand, if fewer configurationsare constructed, the state requirement for the endorsementrouting information storages reduced.However, calculating the minimum number of configurationsfor a given topology graph is computationally demanding. Onesolution would be to find all valid configurations for the inputconsisting of the topology graph and its associated normal link weights , and then find the complete set of configurations withlowest cardinality. Finding this set would involve solving theSet Cover problem, which is known to be-complete [13].
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011130http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 The algorithm can be implemented either in a network management system, or in the routers. As long as all routershave the same view of the network topology, they will computethe same set of endorsement configurations. Description:Algorithm 1 loops through all nodes in the topology, and tries toisolate them one at a time, link is isolated in the same iteration asone of its attached nodes. The algorithm terminates when eitherall nodes and links in the network are isolated in exactly oneconfiguration, or a node that cannot be
Fig. 2. Packet forwarding state diagram.
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011131http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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