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A Security Generated Approach towards Mass Elections using Voting Software

A Security Generated Approach towards Mass Elections using Voting Software

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Published by ijcsis
Elections form the core of democratic society and, as such, are of monumental importance in democratic world. In order for an election to remain truly democratic, it must uphold four critical properties: privacy, incoercibility, accuracy and verifiability. In this paper we analyze threats against these properties during the three phases of an election (voter registration, casting votes, and tabulating votes), highlight specific ways voting systems have been compromised, summarize the weaknesses of current voting techniques, and give assurance to voters to
ensure their votes are handled properly in upcoming elections.
For an election to serve its purpose in a democracy, it must guarantee four properties:
• Privacy — voters have the right to keep their ballots secret.
• Incoercibility — voters cannot reveal the contents of their cast ballots.
• Accuracy — the final tally is the actual sum of all cast ballots.
• Verifiability — voters can prove to themselves that their ballots were cast as intended and counted, and anyone can prove that the final tally is accurate.
Violations of any of these properties, particularly in the form of security breaches, can disrupt the outcome of an election or discourage potential voters from participating. This can allow small groups of people to compromise the robustness and fairness of the election. Any failure to guarantee each citizen the right to cast one, and only one, vote in the election violates the fundamental principle of democracy.
Elections form the core of democratic society and, as such, are of monumental importance in democratic world. In order for an election to remain truly democratic, it must uphold four critical properties: privacy, incoercibility, accuracy and verifiability. In this paper we analyze threats against these properties during the three phases of an election (voter registration, casting votes, and tabulating votes), highlight specific ways voting systems have been compromised, summarize the weaknesses of current voting techniques, and give assurance to voters to
ensure their votes are handled properly in upcoming elections.
For an election to serve its purpose in a democracy, it must guarantee four properties:
• Privacy — voters have the right to keep their ballots secret.
• Incoercibility — voters cannot reveal the contents of their cast ballots.
• Accuracy — the final tally is the actual sum of all cast ballots.
• Verifiability — voters can prove to themselves that their ballots were cast as intended and counted, and anyone can prove that the final tally is accurate.
Violations of any of these properties, particularly in the form of security breaches, can disrupt the outcome of an election or discourage potential voters from participating. This can allow small groups of people to compromise the robustness and fairness of the election. Any failure to guarantee each citizen the right to cast one, and only one, vote in the election violates the fundamental principle of democracy.

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Published by: ijcsis on Aug 13, 2011
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A Security Generated Approach towards Mass Elections using VotingSoftware
 
Aradhana GoutamFr. Conceicao Rodrigues Collegeof Engineering,Bandstand, Bandra (W),Mumbai 400050,Maharashtra, Indiaaradhana.pande@gmail.com Ankit KandoiFr. Conceicao Rodrigues Collegeof Engineering,Bandstand, Bandra (W),Mumbai 400050,Maharashtra, Indiaankit400063@yahoo.co.in Manish WaghFr. Conceicao Rodrigues Collegeof Engineering,Bandstand, Bandra (W),Mumbai 400050,Maharashtra, Indiamanishwagh1989@gmail.com Kashyap Shah Prathamesh Tarkar Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues College Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues Collegeof Engineering, of Engineering,Bandstand, Bandra (W), Bandstand, Bandra (W),Mumbai 400050, Mumbai 400050,Maharashtra, India Maharashtra, Indiakashyap.m.shah.88@gmail.com  prathamesh.tarkar@yahoo.in 
 ABSTRACT 
 Elections form the core of democratic society and, as such, are of monumental importance in democraticworld. . In order for an election to remain trulydemocratic, it must uphold four critical properties: privacy, incoercibility, accuracy and verifiability. Inthis paper we analyze threats against these propertiesduring the three phases of an election (voter registration, casting votes, and tabulating votes),highlight specific ways voting systems have beencompromised, summarize the weaknesses of current voting techniques, and give assurance to voters toensure their votes are handled properly in upcoming elections. For an election to serve its purpose in a democracy,it must guarantee four properties:• Privacy — voters have the right to keep their ballots secret.• Incoercibility — voters cannot reveal the contents of their cast ballots.• Accuracy — the final tally is the actual sum of all cast ballots.• Verifiability — voters can prove to themselves that their ballots were cast as intended and counted, and anyone can prove that the final tally is accurate.Violations of any of these properties, particularly inthe form of security breaches, can disrupt theoutcome of an election or discourage potential voters from participating. This can allow small groups of  people to compromise the robustness and fairness of the election. Any failure to guarantee each citizen theright to cast one, and only one, vote in the electionviolates the fundamental principle of democracy
.
 Keywords—online voting, Encryption, CAPTCHA, Bio-Metric, Graphs/Charts
 I. INTRODUCTION
A.
 
Purpose:
The main objective of this project is to illustrate therequirement of project Voting Software for masselections. It gives detailed description of functional &non – functional requirements of the intended system.It is meant to delineate the features of intendedsystem, so as to serve as guide to developers on onehand and software validation documents for the perspective clients on the
 
other. The final product of the team will be meeting requirements of thisdocument.
B.
 
Scope:
We describe what features are in scope and what arenot in the scope of the software to be developed.
a) WITHIN THE SCOPE:-
 
Pre – election processing where users arerequired to fill an online form, take its printout and submit it to centre’s along with therequired documents for validation.
 
Information about different parties, their representatives and their recent work ismade available on the respective website.
 
Voter Authentication.
 
Alerting voter if already voted once.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011152http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
 
Secured transmission of count of votes of each representatives usingencryption/decryption/algorithm.
 
Administrator/ Chief Election Officer Authentication.
b) BEYOND THE SCOPE:-
 
All the information in the forms collected atthe centre’s are stored and maintained in thevoter’s database.
 
Any client related prediction
.
C.
 
Overview:
The rest of Software Requirement Specification(SRS) is organized as follows: Section 2 gives overalldescription of software. It gives what level of  proficiency is expected of the user, some generalconstraints while making software and someassumptions and dependencies that are assumed.Section 3 gives specific requirements which softwareis expected to deliver. Functional requirements aregiven by various UML diagrams. Some performanceand design requirements are also specified in thedocument.
II. DESCRIPTION
A.
 
Product Perspective:
The system will prompt the voter to enter his user idand DOB. These details will be checked against thedatabase decentralized according to thelocality/postal code. Further, the voter will be permitted to select
 
one of the representativesdisplayed on the GUI screen.The system will alert the user:1.
 
For vote confirmation2.
 
If he has voted earlier.The system will have admin who has fully fledgedrights with regards to managing resources acrosscenters such as transferring voters information to thecentre’s, decrypting and counting the votes received by each representative, displaying results on thewebsite
B.
 
User Characteristics:
Features of entities involved in the system:Chief Election Officer (CEO):The Chief Election Officer has the exclusive right toview the results of the election. He can view theresults with respect to a ward or country in the formof charts. After viewing the results, he would thendisplay the results on the website. The Chief ElectionOfficer is authenticated with the help of fingerprintrecognition.Voter:The Voter can register himself in different languagesas per his choice. The Voter is assigned an UniqueIdentifier after his identity is confirmed. The Voter can also browse through the website to gainknowledge of different candidates and parties. TheVoter is authenticated with the help of his UniqueIdentifier, Date of Birth and age. Eventually, theVoter can give a vote which gets recorded in thedatabase.
C.
 
Performance Characteristics:
a)
 
Language TranslationVoter can submit the registration form in English,Marathi, Gujarati, Hindi, Telugu and Bengali. b)
 
UIDsVoter is assigned an Unique Identifier (UID) oncehis/her identity is confirmed.c)
 
ReliabilityThe Voting System does not fail even if thousands of users are trying to access it at the same time.d)
 
Exclusive Access To ResultsOnly the Chief Election Officer is allowed to accessthe results of the election via fingerprintauthentication.
 
e)
 
Human VerificationIt is generated during the voter registration which isused to distinguish human voters from web spidersand computer programs.f)
 
ChartsResults of the election can be viewed in the form of table and charts like Pie chart, Bar chart and Linegraph.g)
 
Denial of copyThe website developed has right click, select,highlighting and back button disabled.
D.
 
Behavioral Description:
 
Response time should not be more than onesecond.
 
Transferring a vote should not take more thanthree seconds.
 
There should be proper synchronization andaccurate time interval
.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011153http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
E.
 
Design Constraints:
 
The Exit button cannot be disabled.
 
The Menu button cannot be disabled.
F.
 
General Constraints
 
Full working of the system requires Internetconnection.
 
The system is single-user software decentralizedaccording to postal code or locality.
G.
 
Assumptions & Dependencies:
Assumptions:
 
The system assumes that the users have a bitknowledge regarding how to use amouse/keyboard of a computer.
 
Full working of the system is dependent on theavailability of Internet connection.
Dependencies:
The system needs following 3
rd
party products:
 
 NetBeans
 
Glassfish Application Server 
 
Tomcat Web Server 
 
JavaDB
H.
 
Hardware Specifications:
a)
 
Client site:Minimum Requirements:
 
P4 2.4 GHz
 
256 MB RAM
 
20 GB Hard Disk 
 
Broadband connection (128 Kbps)
b)
 
Server site:Minimum Requirements:
 
Intel /AMD dual core/core 2duo laptop with in- built fingerprint recognition system
 
4 GB RAM
 
240 GB Hard Disk 
 
Broadband connection(2Mbps)
I.
 
Software Specifications:
a)
 
Client Site:
 
Windows 2000/XP/Vista/ 7 Operating System
 
Web browser 
b) Server Site:
 
Windows XP/Vista/ 7 or Linux OperatingSystem
 
Java2 Software Development Kit 1.6
 
Java Runtime Environment
 
 NetBeans 6.8
 
Glassfish V3 Domain
 
TomCat
 
Java DB
 
Web browser 
J.
 
Validation criteria:
Software should provide following validations:
 
If the input is incorrect or empty then an error isthrown and the control is redirected to the home page.
 
The voter is allowed to see only those
 
sectionswhich are permitted by the CEO.
 
III. INVESTIGATION HISTORY
A. Overview of Swiss Voting:
A study realized in 2001 by the Research andDocumentation Centre on Direct Democracy (c2d)upon request by the Geneva State Chancellery statesthat the implementation of Internet voting couldincrease turnout by as much as nine percentage point.Since its launch in the beginning of the currentdecade, the eGov Trenbarometer realized by the Berntechnical school shows that two thirds of Swisscitizens wish to be able to vote online. Studiesconducted in 2003 and 2004 by the GFS pollinginstitute at the request of the federal Chancelleryhave shown that most of the citizens aged 18 to 29considered voting online. All these elements allowthinking that Internet voting will indeed have a positive impact on turnout.The Swiss citizens living in the municipalities of Anières, Avusy, Bernex, Chêne-Bourg, Collonge-Bellerive, Cologny, Grand-Saconnex, Onex, Plan-les-Ouates, Thônex and Vandoeuvres were able to voteonline for the federal and cantonal ballot of Marchthe 7th, 2010. The online voting site was openedfrom Monday February the 8th at midday to SaturdayMarch the 6th at midday. Past this deadline, thesecitizens were able to vote in their polling station onMarch the 7th, from 10 am until midday.Swiss citizens living abroad were also able to voteonline, providing they were registrred to vote inGeneva and have their residence in the European
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011154http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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