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Even Harmonious Graphs with Applications

# Even Harmonious Graphs with Applications

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In this paper we plan to contribute an even harmonious labeling of some well known graphs. Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges. A graph G(p,q) is said to be even harmonious if there exists an injection f : V → { 0,1,…,2q} such that the induced mapping f*(uv) = (f(u)+f(v)) (mod 2q) is a bijection from E onto { 0,2,4,…,2(q-1)}.
In this paper we plan to contribute an even harmonious labeling of some well known graphs. Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges. A graph G(p,q) is said to be even harmonious if there exists an injection f : V → { 0,1,…,2q} such that the induced mapping f*(uv) = (f(u)+f(v)) (mod 2q) is a bijection from E onto { 0,2,4,…,2(q-1)}.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.
, Ju
ly
2011
Even Harmonious Graphs with Applications

Abstract
— In this paper we plan to contribute an evenharmonious labeling of some well known graphs. Let G(V,E) bea graph with p vertices and q edges. A graph G(p,q) is said to beeven harmonious if there exists an injection f : V → { 0,1,…,2q}such that the induced mapping f*(uv) = (f(u)+f(v)) (mod 2q) is abijection from E onto { 0,2,4,…,2(q-1)}.
Keywords- Harmonious labeling, Path, Cycle, Completebipartite graph, Bistar.
I
.
INTRODUCTION
Throughout this paper, by a graph we mean a finite,undirected, simple graph. For notations and terminology wefollow Bondy and Murthy [ 1 ]. Graph labeling where thevertices are assigned values subject to certain conditions have been motivated by practical problems. Labeled graphs servesas models in a wide range of applications such as Codingtheory, the x-ray crystallography , to design a

.
We denoted the path on n vertices by P
n
, the cycle onn vertices by C
n
, the complete bipartite graph by K
m,n
and thestar graph by K
1,n
. In [ 3 ] Graham and Sloane have introducedthe harmonious labeling of a graph. Zhi – He Liang, Zhan – LiBai [ 4 ] have introduced the odd harmonious labeling of agraph. For a detailed survey on graph labeling we refer toGallian [2 ]. We refer [ 5] also.Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges.A graph G with q edges is harmonious if there is aninjection ‘f’ from the vertices of G to the group of integersmodulo q such that when each edge xy is assigned the label(f(x) + f(y)) (mod q), the resulting edge labels should bedistinct.A graph G(p,q) is said to be odd harmonious if thereexists an injection f : V → {0, 1, 2, …., 2q – 1 } such thatinduced mapping f
*
(uv) = (f(u) + f(v)) is bijection from E onto {1, 3, 5, …., 2q - 1}. Then f is said to become an oddharmonious labeling of G
.
The floor function assigns to the real number x thelargest integer that is less than or equal x. The value of thefloor function at x is denoted by
x
.The ceiling function assigns to the real number x thesmallest integer that is greater than or equal x. The value of the ceiling function at x is denoted by
x
.A function f is called the even harmonious labeling of a graph G(V, E) if f : V → {0, 1, 2, ……., 2q} is injective andthe induced function
*
: E → {0, 2,…,2(q– 1)} is defined as
*
(uv) = (f(u) + f(v)) (mod 2q ) is bijective, the resulting edgelabels should be distinct.A graph which admits even harmonious labeling iscalled an even harmonious graph.Theorem 1.1.If a graph G (p,q) is even harmonious graphthen 2q and 0 are the maximal label and the minimal label of vertices respectively .Theorem 1.2. In even harmonious labeling twoconsecutive integers cannot be the labels of any two verticesin G.II. MAIN RESULTSTheorem 2.1.A path P
n
(n ≥ 2 ) is even harmonious.Proof.Case (i): The number of vertices is even
.

Let m = 2nLet P
m
be the path with vertices v
i
, 1 ≤ i ≤ mDefine f(v
i
) = 2( i – 1 ), 1 ≤ i ≤ m .Then f is an even harmonious labeling of P
m
.Case (ii): The number of vertices is odd
.
Let m = 2n + 1Let P
m
be the path with vertices v
i
, 1 ≤ i ≤ mDefine f(v
2i - 1
) = 2( i – 1 ), i = 1,2,…,
m/2
.f(v
2i
) = m+ ( 2i – 1 ), i = 1,2,…,
m/2
Then f is an even harmonious labeling of P
m
.Theorem 2.2. The complete bipartite graph
m,n
is evenharmonious.Proof.Let the vertices sets U and V be the bipartition of K
m,n
,where U = { u
j
, 1 j m} and V = { v
i
, 1 ≤ i ≤ n}.Define f(u
j
) = 2( j 1 ), 1 j m andf(v
i
) = 2mi, 1 i n.Then f is an even harmonious labeling of K
m,n
.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.
, Ju
ly
2011
Corollary 2.3. The star graph
1,n
is even harmonious.Proof.

Replaced m by 1 in Theorem 2.2 the result followed.Theorem 2.4. Any cycle of odd length is even harmonious.Proof.Let C
2n+1
( n ≥ 1) be the cycle of odd length with vertices v
1
,v
2
,…,v
2n+1.
Define f(v
i
) = 2( i – 1 ), 1 i 2n+ 1.Then f is an even harmonious labeling of odd cycles.Definition 2.5.

The Bistar graph B
m,n
is the graph obtainedfrom K
2
by joining m pendant edges to one end of K
2
and n pendant edges to the other end of K
2
.Theorem 2.6.

The Bistar graph B
m,n
is an even harmonious.Proof .

Let u, v be the vertices of K
2
in Bistar graph B
m,n
andU = { u
j
,

1 j m} and V = { v
i
, 1 i n} be the verticesadjacent to u and v respectively.Define f(u) = 0, f(v) = 2q, f(u
j
) = 2n+2j, 1 j m andf(v
i
) = 2i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n.Then f becomes an even harmonious labeling of Bistar graphFor example, even harmonious labeling of the Bistar graphB
3,4
is shown in Figure 1.Theorem 2.7. The graph
2
+ K
nc
is even harmonious.Proof.Let V(K
2
) = {u
1
,u
2
} and V(K
nc
) = { v
1
, v
2
,…, v
n
} .Define f(u
1
) = 2(n + 1) , f(u
2
) = 0 and f(v
i
) = 2i, 1 i nThen f becomes an even harmonious labeling of K
2
+ K
nc
.For example, even harmonious labeling of the graph K
2
+ K
nc
.is shown in Figure 2. Definition 2.8.
n
P
, the k
th
power of P
n
, is the graphobtained from the path P
n
by adding edges that join all verticesu and v with distance (u,v) = k.Theorem 2.9. The graph
2
n
P
is an even harmonious.Proof.Let v
1
,v
2
,…,v
n
be the vertices of
2
n
P
.Define f(v
i
) = 2( i 1), 1 i n.Then f is even harmonious.For example, Figure 3 is an even harmonious graph of
2
n
P
.Definition 2.10. [3]The friendship graph F
n
( n ≥ 1 )consists of n triangles with a common vertex.Theorem 2.11. The friendship graph F
2n +1
is evenharmonious.Proof.The friendship graph F
2n+1
consists of 2n + 1 trianglewith 4n + 3 vertices and 6n + 3 edges. Let v
1
be the commonvertex and v
1
,v
i
,v
i+1
, i= 2,4,…,2(2n+1) be the vertices of eachtriangle.

Define f(v
1
) = 0, f( v
2i +2
) = 2(3i +1), i = 0, 1,…, 2nand f(v
2j+1
) = 2(3j -1), j = 1, 2,…, 2n + 1.Then f becomes an even harmonious graph.

Figure 1:B
3, 4
16642014121088642 010
Figure 2 : K
2
+ K
4

c
64128010622480
Figure 3 : P
n

2
120214121014864210864016