page 2 Nuclear Policy Paper No. 5 -
Kibaroglu – Turkey, NATO & and Nuclear Sharing
Turkey’s official stance toward thepresence of U.S. nuclear weapons on itssoil
It is not the practice of NATO members todiscuss nuclear deployments in Europe;details remain classified. Even the identityof host states is a secret, so there areinevitable tensions for any politician toadmit to such deployments. But Turkey hasunique sensitivities that have preventeddiscussion even in private of its hosting of U.S. nuclear warheads. Turkey’s stance islargely unchanged since the first U.S.nuclear weapons were deployed in Turkeyin February 1959.
Profile of U.S. nuclear weapons in Turkey
By the mid-1980s, “the United States [had]store[d] some 500 nuclear warheads inTurkey, and as many as 300 of them [were]bombs for aircraft. U.S. nuclear bombs[were] stored at four airbases—Eskisehir,Murted, Erhac, and Balikesir—for use byfour Turkish Air Force units. The Turkishsquadrons consisting of nuclear-certifiedaircraft as F-104s, F-4s, and F-100s, [were]armed with four types of bombs with yieldsup to a couple of hundred kilotons. The U.S.Army also [had] nuclear weapons inTurkey, [which were] allocated for supportof the Turkish First and Third Armies.Custodian detachments at Cakmakli,Ortakoy, Corlu, Izmit, and Erzurum store[d]about 190 warheads for obsolete 1950s-vintage Turkish Army Honest John short-range missile launchers (four battalions) and32 eight-inch guns.”
Turkey still hosts U.S. tactical nuclearweapons on its territory, albeit in muchsmaller numbers. They are limited to onelocation, the Incirlik base near Adana on theeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
Allother nuclear weapons have been withdrawnfrom the bases mentioned above. Moreover,the Turkish Air Force no longer has anyoperational link with the remaining tacticalnuclear weapons deployed at Incirlik.
F-104s have not been in service since 1994. F-4s are still in service after modernization of some 54 of them by Israeli AerospaceIndustries in 1997. Yet, only the F-16“Fighting Falcons” of the Turkish Air Forceparticipate in NATO’s nuclear strikeexercises known as “Steadfast Noon,”during which crews are trained in loading,unloading and employing B61 tacticalnuclear weapons. The Turkish aircraft inthese exercises serve as a non-nuclear airdefense escort rather than a nuclear strikeforce.
Significance of nuclear weapons for Turkey
Even in the absence of an imminent nuclearthreat to Turkey’s security, the view amongboth civilian and military Turkish securityelites does not seem to have changed sincethe Cold War. One explanation for theuniformity of their views lies in the prestigeattributed to nuclear weapons. There arespecific reasons that explain why Turkishgovernment officials and civilian andmilitary bureaucrats want to retain U.S.nuclear weapons on Turkey’s soil, first andforemost being the perceived threat from thestill uncertain international securityenvironment. Turkish government officials’views were expressed (in not-for-attributionnotes) as follows:“Nuclear weapons continue to preserve theircritical importance for the security of the[North Atlantic] alliance, yet they are