Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The Turks in Europe and the Serbs in Asia Minor Nicolas Oikonomides

The Turks in Europe and the Serbs in Asia Minor Nicolas Oikonomides

Ratings: (0)|Views: 28|Likes:
Published by vuk300

More info:

Published by: vuk300 on Aug 14, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/12/2013

pdf

text

original

 
THETURKSINEUROPE(1305-13)ANDTHESERBSINASIAMINOR(1313)
NicolasOIKONOMIDESModernhistorianshaveoftendeploredthefactthattheBalkanChristianswereunabletosetasidetheirdifferencesduringthe14thcenturyandcreateacommonfrontthatwouldhavehaltedtheTurkishonslaught.Moreover,thebitterstruggleforsupremacyintheBalkansatthetimeofStephenDushan,whichcoincidedwithacatastophicByzantinecivilwar,didnotleavemuchscopeforturningagainsttheTurks.Yet,alreadybeforetheirresistibleriseoftheOttomans,someemiratesofAsiaMinor,especiallythoseofMentesheandofAydin,hadwroughthavocallovertheAegeanwithnavalraids.But
it
wasevenearlier,atthetimeoftheCatalancompany,thattheEuropeanpartsoftheempirehadtheirfirsttasteofwhatwastocornefromtheTurks.Andforonce,therewasaneffortnotonlytopushthesenewinvadersawayfromEuropebutalsotostrikeablowattheirbasesinAsiaMinor.TherehadbeenpreviousattemptstopushbacktheTurks.TheemperorAndronikosIIfirsttriedAlanmercenariesagainstthem,butwithoutsuccess.ThencametheCatalans,whoconductedverysuccessfuloperationsinAsiaMinorduringthesummerof1304.Butimmediatelyaftertheirdeparture,theTurkscapturedEphesos(October1304).Whatismore,inthespring1305,theCompanybrokewiththeByzantinesandembarkeduponthegreatadventurethatwouldleadtothecaptureofAthenssixyearslater.
It
wasduringtheCatalanadventurethattheTurkseventuallycrossedtoEurope.TheByzantinehistorianNikephorosGregorassaysthattheCatalans,whowereatKallipolis,firstinvited500ofthemasalliesfromtheoppositeside(oftheDardanelles),
i.
e.fromAsiaMinor,andthatmanymorevolunteeredtheirservices.'Infactthissecondgroupalsoarrivedin1305.Theydidnotaskforanymoney;alltheywantedwastokeepthebootythattheywouldgain,givingonlyonefifthtotheCatalans:"eighthundredhorseandtwothousandfootjoined
1.GREGORAS,
Y.
I,
p.
228-229:
DLMQwBtuovtmmQl01J!L!LUXiUl;
tgOr;
tOUr;
aV1:L1tEpac;
oixouvrr«;twvToupxtovxalAaflBa.vOUCiltore!Ltvmvtuxoo~01JC;OJtAh:ar;...!LEt'ouJtoA
u
61;xcittEQOUC;ouxoAiyouc;autOfloAOUr;
iovtoc.
2.Thisis
an
interestingarrangement,apparentlyinaccordancewiththelaw
ofIslam,
 
160NICOLASOIKONOMIDES
theCompanyunderthisagreement.tAccordingtoanotherByzantinehistorian,GeorgePachymeres,theyoriginallycamefromtheclanoftheAydinogluandwereaccompaniedbymanyGreeksfromAsiaMinor.sLater,afterthebattleofApros(1307),theywerejoinedbyacorpsofChristianisedTourkopouloiwhohaddesertedtheemperor.
It
isnotimpossible-butitcannotbedemonstratedeither-thatsomeOttomanshadjoinedforceswiththem.>TheseTurkishcontingentsstayedwiththeCompanyforquitesometimeandimpressedMuntanerwiththeirvalour,loyaltyandobedience,aswellaswiththeirefficiencyinconductinglootingexpeditionsinneighbouring-andnotsoneighbouring-regions.TheyalsoimpressedtheGreekswiththeirdestructiveraids,andwiththeirdesiretomakepermanentconquestssofarawayfromhome.
whichstipulatedthatonefifthofthespoilsofwarshouldgotoAllah,thatistheState.Cf.MAJIDKHADDURI,
WarandPeaceintheLawofIslam,
(BaltimoreandLondon1955)p.120
ff',
Inthisfirstphase,theTurksweresimpleauxiliariesandconsequentlytheyhadtorecognisethattheCompanywasthe"State"thatemployedthem.Butthispracticewasappliedbyotherpowersintheregion:theveryChristianByzantineemperoralsorequiredonefifthofthebootygainedbyhissoldiers;seePSEUDO-KODINOS,
Traitedesoffices,
ed.1.VERPEAUX,(Paris1966)p.251.3.MUNTANER,
Cronica,
ch.228,p.75-77'"
TheChronicleofMuntaner,
transl.byLADYGOODENOUGH,II,(London1921)p.542-544.-PachyrnerescallstheTurks"allies"(OU!l!.lUXOt),Gregoras"mercenaryallies"([,lt08oq;oQtx1'lvO1WW1Xiuv),butIthinkthatMuntaner,whowasaneyewitness,describestheagreementmoreaccurately.AccordingtoPACHYMERES(l835),v.Il,p.572,therewasaninitialagreementgivingtheTurkshalfthebooty,buttheCatalanscheatedandgavethemonlyonethirdof
it.
4.PACHYMERES(1835),v.II,p.585:
rrov
1tfOQtAttvnv
nfQOWV...
E!ltl;6.v'[wvxui
"Prouu
iniv
f1;
'AV(1TOAnr;..Thisisanoteworthypieceofinformation.ThepermanentconquestofWesternAsiaMinorbytheTurkswasthenveryrecent:Ephesoshadfallennotevenoneyearbeforetheeventsthatwedescribehere(October1304);andthefallofitshinterlandcouldnotbyanymeansantedatetheoperationsofAlexiosPhilanthropenos(1293-1295).ThecollaborationoftheconqueredpopulationswiththeTurksinoperationsdirectedagainsttheByzantineempireissignificantinshowingthatananti-CcnstantinopolitanideologyprevailedtheninAsiaMinor,anideologywhichcertainlyfacilitatedtheTurkishconquestandwhich,combinedwithacertaingreedforbooty,motivatedtheparticipationofChristiansinoverseaslootingoperations.5.ApersistentnoteoftheGreekShortChroniclesplacesthefirstcrossingoftheTurksintheWest(orinEurope,orinthe"world")intheyear6815
(=
130617);insomeofthemitisevenmentionedthatthiswasdonebyasonofOsman,namedSuleyrnan,whoremainedasagovernorfor21years.SeeSCHREINER,
Kleinchroniken,
v.I,p.451,459,461,471,493,551,571andcf.v.II,p.221-222.
It
is
possiblethatwehavehereaconfusionduetothefactthatin1307theTurksadvancedforthefirsttimeintowesternThraceandMacedonia;andaconfusionwitheventsthatfollowedtheyear1347(6855),whenaStileyman,sonofsultanOrhan,eventuallycrossedtoEuropeasasupporterofKantakouzenosandsettledpermanentlyonEuropeansoilwaitingfortheopportunitytoconquerastrongpoint(whichwastocomewiththecaptureofTzympeandKallipolisin1352and1354).
 
JHhTURKS
IN
EUROPE
161
Moreover,theGreektextsthatwearegoingtoexamineinwhatfollows,representthemaspeopleattachedtotheprinciplesoftheIslamicreligionandparticularlymotivatedbytheideologyofthe
djihad.
Thisideology,andtheeconomicdesireforbooty,appeartobethemainmotivesattractingtheTurkstotheserviceofanychieftainwhoconductedoperations,mainlylootingraids,againsttheinfidel.ThomasMagistros(themonkTheodoulos)describeshowin1308-1309theTurks,thenwiththeCatalansinCentralMacedonia,sentambassadorsrepeatedlywithdemandsthatthecity(Thessalonica?)bedeliveredtothemforthwithandthatitsinhabitantsbecometheirsubjects;otherwise,theythreatenedtoconquerthecityanddestroyitdowntothefoundations,tomassacretheinhabitants,inparticularthosewhoresistedthem,totakethousandsofslaves,tolooteverything,todestroyallagriculturalproduction,todestroyallchurchesandhouses,portsandgraves,porticosandamphitheatres,amongotherfrightfulthings.>IbelievethattherhetoricofThomasMagistrosaccuratelydescribestheTurkishproposals.AccordingtoatenetofIslamicLaw,theTurks,beforelaunchingtheirattackonthecity,proposedsurrendertotheinhabitantsandstatusas
zimmi
inreturnforsecurityintheir"bloodandproperty".AstheseinhabitantswereChristians,therecouldbenoquestionofdemandingtheirconversiontoIslam."Ifthisinvitation,whichhadnormallytoberepeatedthreetimes,wasignored,thentheMuslimarmywasallowedtoshownomercy
to
theenemy:accordingtotheusualTurkishtactics,thisattackwouldstartwiththedestructionofthecountrysideandtheisolationofthecity;then,whenthecitywastaken,theconquerorswouldfeelfreetokillwhoevertheywanted,toseizeallthattheywouldfind,tocarryofftheentirepopulationintoslavery,todestroyallbuildingsthattheydeemednecessaryfordestruction.
It
isclearthattheTurks,althoughauxiliariesoftheCatalans,wereplanningtheirownconquests,tobemadeinthenameofIslam,andthatintheprocesstheyobeyedthepreceptsofIslamicLawwhilefulfillingtheirobli-gationasMuslimstoconductthe
djihad.
Thiswasin1308-1309.EventuallytheTurkspartedcompanywiththeCatalans.AccordingtoGregoras,thiswouldhavehappenedbeforethecompanycrossedintoThessaly(1309);accordingtoMuntaner''and,mostimportantly,toMarinoSanudo,whowas
6.LetterofThomasMagistrostothemonkJosephconcerningtheattackoftheItalians
(=
Catalans)andofthePersians
(=
Turks),in
PG,
v.145,c.444-445:(theTurks)
xTi(_)uxa~nva~!lI1Lv£Xrtfl1JWUOLV60tlI1E(_)UL..O€tVOWTUmivtwv
clrouvrcc:
xuv111lta!)OUAEUOI1EvanE(_)w;
w~
taXLOWOXU(rotrro6'
scrtv
EXOVtW;ovta!;;rtaQa6EOwx£VUL(J(PlGLt1lvnOI.LV
xct
!lEtatlOVunOtElaYilEvwv<pE:(_)wem),atonout:;tLva~anUAoumnOQeTiOfLt:;xotxataoxa<pa~yii;,xalnOAEw~avaotaoftt:;EX!)ae(_)wv,xattlOV
evocxoovrrov
OA£e(_)OV,xai6axQuaxalo<payat:;xal
uluo
xalqiovov,xalalXj.LaAWW11~1111(_)[011;,
ci
t(_)aul1awtlOVuvSwtal1EVWV,xalartoAwA6w~UrtE(_)oJIAiieo~,xataywY1lvOXUAfU!latwV,xaixa(_)nlOvcmavtwv<pSoQav,xalV£lOVxal
olxrov,
xalALj.LEVWVaita<pwv,
xct
ctorov
xaieEat(_)wv'xainave'
6rwu
ta<p(_)lxw6n.
7.KHADDURI,
WarandPeace,
p.96.8.MUNTANER,
Cronica,
ch.241,p.109
=
TheChronicle,
p.578.Muntanerdescribes

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->