sexually abused may also suffer from physical, emotional and / or psychological trauma and have long term post traumaticstress disorder, depression; isolation and self-destructiveness are also some of the impacts of abuse. Sexually transmittedinfections, HIV/AIDS or unwanted pregnancy can be some of the devastating effects of CSA. Sometimes the abused child isblamed and made to feel guilty and can face trauma and social stigmatization. As a result, he/she may feel worthless, powerless,angry, frightened, and lonely.
CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND TRAFFICKING
Commercial Sexual Exploitation (CSE) of children refers to using a child for sexual activities for the material or monetary gains of an adult. Those who profit from this commercial exploitation could include parents, family members, community members, pro-curers/agents, pimps, brothel owners etc.Poverty and ignorance are the underlying causes of this worldwide phenomenon. Families themselves exploit their children tocontribute to the household income. There are some communities where religious and cultural systems, like the Devdasi or theJogini, legitimize the sexual exploitation of young girls and ultimately many of them get into prostitution/sex work. Commercialsexual exploitation can be in the form of:Prostitution - using a child for sexual activities for material or monetary gains.Sex Tourism- In the last few years, the rapid growth of tourism has led to the expansion of the child sex industry. In India, thereare increasing number of instances of CSE of children at popular tourist destinations where they become victims of paedophiles.Children are used as attractions for sex tourism.Child Pornography Audio-visual material using children in sexually abusive manners is another form of CSE of children.Physical, psychological, emotional abuse leads to trauma to the child, as well as societal or family rejection and ostracism.Trafficking of children for domestic work, adoption, child labour and other abusive situations is also a serious concern.
CHILDREN ABUSED IN INSTITUTIONS
A child in an institution is any child below 18 years of age who is living in a residential organization that is entrusted with thecare and protection of the child. Therefore institutions for children need to function as substitute families, and must provide forthe childs physical well-being, as well as the childs emotional and developmental needs.However there has been a significant increase in the number of cases of abuse- physical and sexual in institutions. In manycases, it is the caregivers, i.e. those who are entrusted with the care of children in the institution, who are the abusers. Thereare several cases, which go unreported, or no punitive action is taken against the perpetrators of the crime and this is an area of serious concern. The abuse can range from corporal punishment like beating, caning and physical assaults to deprivation of food, using abusive language, passing sexually abusive remarks, physical touching, molestation to rape. Improving the quality of child care in residential institutions and shelters is a major challenge that needs to be addressed.
CHILDREN ENGAGING IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Substance abuse involves taking a drug/ alcohol for reasons other than medical and in amount, strength, frequency or mannerthat damages the physical / mental functioning of a person, causing social or medical harm. Some drugs produce psychologicaldependency that is characterized by a persistent craving. Others produce a physical dependence too, where smaller quantities,sufficient earlier are no longer effective and the amount of drug intake has to increase. A child addict is an individual below 18years of age who is either addicted or dependent on drugs.Addictions can be for medicines, over the counter drugs, illegal drugs, beverages, cigarettes, food additives, adhesives,correction fluid, petrol/diesel solution, shoe polish and industrial chemicals. The potent fumes of certain solvents hit a part of the childs brain where it suppresses hunger, cold, and loneliness. Children are particularly prone to be lured into addictions byundesirable societal elements and to be manipulated for drug trafficking by organized drug groups. Substance abuse leads toacute physical and emotional dependence on drugs which causes irreversible brain damage and some- times even suddendeath. The drug users who inject themselves with the narcotic, usually share the same syringe which is a major cause for thealarming spread of HIV/AIDS.
CHILDREN IN CONFLICT AND DISASTER SITUATIONS
Crisis situations like wars, insurgencies, political conflicts, natural and manmade disasters, and displacement have a severenegative impact on families and cause adverse physical and emotional effects on the children caught in these situations. In suchan event it often happens that the needs and rights of children are completely neglected. Their basic right to survival and