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Permutation and Combination

# Permutation and Combination

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04/21/2013

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Index1. Theory2. Short Revision3. Exercise (1 to 5)4. Assertion & Reason5. Que. from Compt. Exams
Subject : Mathematics
Topic: Permutation &Combination
Student’s Name :_____________________Class :_____________________Roll No. :_____________________
STUDY PACKAGE
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jfpr%ekuo /keZiz.ksr jfpr%ekuo /keZiz.ksr jfpr%ekuo /keZiz.ksr jfpr%ekuo /keZiz.ksr jfpr%ekuo /keZiz.ksrln~xq# Jhj.kNksM+nklthegkjkln~xq# Jhj.kNksM+nklthegkjkln~xq# Jhj.kNksM+nklthegkjkln~xq# Jhj.kNksM+nklthegkjkln~xq# Jhj.kNksM+nklthegkjk
ENJOY
MAMAMAMAMATHEMATHEMATHEMATHEMATHEMATICSTICSTICSTICSTICS
WITH
SUHAASUHAASUHAASUHAASUHAAG SIRG SIRG SIRG SIRG SIR
!
:(0755) 32 00 000, 98930 58881

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2   o   f   2   7
Permutation and Combination
Permutations are arrangements and combinations are selections. In this chapter wediscuss the methods of counting of arrangements and selections. The basic resultsand formulas are as follows:
1.Fundamental Principle of Counting :(i)Principle of Multiplication:
If an event can occur in ‘m’ different ways, following which another event can occur in ‘n’different ways, then total number of different ways of simultaneous occurrence of boththe events in a definite order is m
×
n.
If an event can occur in ‘m’ different ways, and another event can occur in ‘n’ differentways, then exactly one of the events can happen in m + n ways.
Example # 1
There are 8 buses running from Kota to Jaipur and 10 buses running from Jaipur toDelhi. In how many ways a person can travel from Kota to Delhi via Jaipur by bus.
Solution.
Let E
1
be the event of travelling from Kota to Jaipur & E
2
be the event of travelling fromJaipur to Delhi by the person.E
1
can happen in 8 ways and E
2
can happen in 10 ways.Since both the events E
1
and E
2
are to be happened in order, simultaneously, the numberof ways = 8 × 10 = 80.
Example # 2
How many numbers between 10 and 10,000 can be formed by using the digits 1, 2, 3,4, 5 if(i)No digit is repeated in any number.(ii)Digits can be repeated.
Solution.
(i)Number of two digit numbers = 5 × 4 = 20Number of three digit numbers = 5 × 4 × 3 = 60Number of four digit numbers = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 = 120Total = 200(ii)Number of two digit numbers = 5 × 5 = 25Number of three digit numbers = 5 × 5 × 5 = 125Number of four digit numbers = 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 = 625Total = 775
Self Practice Problems :1.
How many 4 digit numbers are there, without repetition of digits, if each number isdivisible by 5.
Ans.
952
2.
Using 6 different flags, how many different signals can be made by using atleast three
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3   o   f   2   7
flags, arranging one above the other.
Ans.
1920
2.Arrangement :
If
n
P
r
denotes the number of permutations of n different things, taking r at a time, then
n
P
r
= n (n
1) (n
2)..... (n
r + 1) =
)!rn( !n
NOTE :
(i) factorials of negative integers are not defined.(ii) 0 ! = 1 ! = 1 ;(iii)
n
P
n
= n ! = n. (n
1) !(iv) (2n) ! = 2
n
. n ! [1. 3. 5. 7... (2n
1)]
Example # 3
How many numbers of three digits can be formed using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, withoutrepetition of digits. How many of these are even.
Solution.
Three places are to be filled with 5 different objects.
Number of ways =
5
P
3
= 5 × 4 × 3 = 60For the 2nd part, unit digit can be filled in two ways & the remaining two digits can befilled in
4
P
2
ways.
Number of even numbers = 2 ×
4
P
2
= 24.
Example # 4
If all the letters of the word 'QUEST' are arranged in all possible ways and put in dictionaryorder, then find the rank of the given word.
Solution.
Number of words beginning with E =
4
P
4
= 24Number of wards beginning with QE =
3
P
3
= 6Number of words beginning with QS = 6Number of words beginning withQT = 6.Next word is 'QUEST'
its rank is 24 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 1 = 43.
Self Practice Problems :3.
Find the sum of all four digit numbers (without repetition of digits) formed using thedigits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Ans.
399960
4.
Find 'n', if
n – 1
P
3
:
n
P
4
= 1 : 9.
Ans.
9
5.
Six horses take part in a race. In how many ways can these horses come in the first,second and third place, if a particular horse is among the three winners (Assume NoTies).
Ans.
60
3.Circular Permutation :
The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all at a time is; (n
1)

!.If clockwise & anti
clockwise circular permutations are considered to be same, then itis
2)!1n(
.