firstname.lastname@example.org AP European HistoryThe English Reformation and the Catholic ReformationCatholicism. Cranmer also introduced the Book of Common Prayer, which enforces the dogma of theseven sacraments while still expressing other Protestant ideas.
Once Mary I became Queen of England, she tried to re-introduce Roman Catholicism. She executed300 Anglicans, which earned her the nickname “Bloody Mary.” Her marriage to King Philip II of Spainmade her even more unpopular with the English, due to nationalistic reasons.
She was succeeded by her half-sister, Elizabeth I, daughter of Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth knew how tocompromise, and satisfied the Catholics, Protestants, and nobility in her ThirtyThirtyThirtyThirty----Nine ArticlesNine ArticlesNine ArticlesNine Articles. Thesymbols of Catholicism were retained: ornate decorations in churches, priests, and mass. CertainProtestant traditions were incorporated: English was the language of the liturgy, there were no saints,and the clergy could marry. In doctrine, the dogmas were broad and ambiguous to accommodate morepeople. Parliament as well as the monarch determined the Anglican doctrine.Laws were passed against “recusants,” those who refused to acknowledge the Anglican Church. Thisgroup consisted of Catholics, Puritans, and Calvinists. They could not hold government office orreceive any rewards of land or money. Remember, the Separatists were a radical branch of Puritanswho wanted to physically separate themselves from the Anglican Church.Elizabeth faced several challenges throughout her reign:
1557 – Mary Stuart, the Queen of Scots, great-granddaughter of Henry VI, claimed the throneof England. Mary was a Catholic, and thus could not accept Elizabeth as the rightful heir, sinceHenry VIII and Anne Boleyn were married outside of the Catholic Church. After several plotsagainst Elizabeth, Mary Stuart was executed.
King Philip II, who had been married to Mary I, claimed the throne of England on the groundsthat Elizabeth was illegitimate. However, Elizabeth was well-liked by the English people. Eventhose who did not favor her would support her over Philip II for nationalistic reasons.
With his actions against Elizabeth, Philip II starts the decline of the great Spanishempire. He built a large armada of 130 ships, which he bought form the SpanishDutch. This endeavor cost huge amounts of money because of all the suppliesneeded for such an expedition.
In 1558, the Spanish armada set sail for England.
The English Navy, also known as the Sea-Dogs, included sailors such as WalterRaleigh and Frances Deake, privateers who sailed in small, speedy ships. Theyattacked the huge, slow Spanish armada.
When the Spanish were anchored at Dunkirk in the Spanish Netherlands, the Englishships would fire upon the ships, then speed off. At night, they would push burningwreckage into the Spanish fleet.