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MC0075 Computer Networks

MC0075 Computer Networks

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Published by Ajay Dogney

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Published by: Ajay Dogney on Aug 15, 2011
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11/03/2012

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MC0075 ² Computer Networks
 Page | 1
ASSIGNMENT SET ± 11. Explain in what way computer networks is useful for the people with examples ?
Ans: Computer networking is useful to people in many ways. some of the following points are listed anddiscussed here to tell my blog readers about the importance of the computer networks in common people¶sday-to-day life. They are«.
y
 
Access to remote information
y
 
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erson-to-person communication
y
 
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nteractive entertainmentAccess to remote information will come in many forms. One area in which it is already happening isaccess to financial institutions. We can pay our utility bills online, can manage our bank accounts, handleour investments electronically, transfer funds online, buying and selling shares online and bookingreservations online. Newspapers are going online and can be personalized as per our requirement. Wecan tell the newspaper that we want everything about corrupt politicians, big fires, scandals involvingcelebrities, and epidemics, but no foot ball, Thank you. The content of the news will be delivered to our desk as per our interests at night while we sleep every day, the news paper will be downloaded to our computer disk or can be printed on our laser printer. The next step beyond news papers, magazines andscientific journals is the online digital library. We are getting all the news papers content, magazines andscientific journals are available digitally online. Depending on the cost, size and weight of book sizednotebook computers, printed books may become obsolete. Another application that falls in this category isaccess to information systems like the current world wide web, which contains information about the arts, business, cooking, government, health, history, hobbies, recreation, science, sports, travel, and too manyother topics.The second broad category of network use will be person-to-person interactions. Electronic mail or emailis widely used by millions of people and it contains also audio and video as well as text. Real time emailwill allow remote users to communicate with no delay, possible seeing and hearing each other as well.This technology makes it possible to have virtual meetings, called video conference, among far-flung people.Our third category is entertainment, which is, a huge and growing industry, is video on demand.
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t is possible to select any movie or television program ever made, in any country, and have it displayed on our screen instantly. New films became interactive, where the user is occasionally prompted for the storydirection with alternative scenarios provided for all cases. Live television also became interactive, withthe audience participating in quiz shows, choosing among contestants, and so on.
2
. Describe the ISO-OSI reference model and discuss the importance of every layer ?
Ans: The OS
I
, or Open System
I
nterconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer inone station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up thehierarchy.
 
 
MC0075 ² Computer Networks
 Page | 2
The OS
I
, or Open System
I
nterconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer inone station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up thehierarchy.Application (Layer 7) : This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partnersare identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and anyconstraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer  provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet andFT
P
are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.
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resentation (Layer 6) : This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g.,encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats andencrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems.
I
t is sometimescalled the syntax layer.Session (Layer 5) : This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. Thesession layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between theapplications at each end.
I
t deals with session and connection coordination.Transport (Layer 4) : This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and isresponsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control.
I
t ensures complete data transfer. Network (Layer 3) : This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, knownas virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of thislayer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing.Data Link (Layer 2) : At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits.
I
t furnishestransmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow controland frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control(MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer onthe network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls framesynchronization, flow control and error checking.
P
hysical (Layer 1) : This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- throughthe network at the electrical and mechanical level.
I
t provides the hardware means of sending andreceiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232,and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.
3
. Explain the following with respect to Data Communications:A) Fourier analysis B) Band limited signals C) Maximum data rate of a channel
Ans: A) Fourier analysis
I
n 19th century, the French mathematician Fourier proved that any periodic function of time g(t) with period T can be constructed by summing a number of cosines and sines.
 
MC0075 ² Computer Networks
 Page | 3
Where f=1/T is the fundamental frequency, and are the sine and cosine amplitudes of thenth harmonics. Such decomposition is called a Fourier series.B) Band limited signalsConsider the signal given in figure below. Figure shows the signal that is the ASC
II
 representation of the character µb¶ which consists of the bit pattern µ01100010¶ along with itsharmonicsAny transmission facility cannot pass all the harmonics and hence few of the harmonics arediminished and distorted. The bandwidth is restricted to low frequencies consisting of 1, 2, 4,and 8 harmonics and then transmitted. Figures show the spectra and reconstructed functionsfor these band-limited signals.Limiting the bandwidth limits the data rate even for perfect channels. However complexcoding schemes that use several voltage levels do exist and can achieve higher data rates.C) Maximum data rate of a channel
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n 1924, H. Nyquist realized the existence of the fundamental limit and derived the equationexpressing the maximum data for a finite bandwidth noiseless channel.
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n 1948, ClaudeShannon carried Nyquist work further and extended it to the case of a channel subject torandom noise.
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n communications, it is not really the amount of noise that concerns us, but rather the amountof noise compared to the level of the desired signal. That is, it is the ratio of signal to noise power that is important, rather than the noise power alone. This Signal¬-to-Noise Ratio(SNR), usually expressed in decibel (dB), is one of the most important specifications of anycommunication system. The decibel is a logarithmic unit used for comparisons of power levelsor voltage levels.
I
n order to understand the implication of dB, it is important to know that asound level of zero dB corresponds to the threshold of hearing, which is the smallest soundthat can be heard. A normal speech conversation would measure about 60 dB.
I
f an arbitrary signal is passed through the Low pass filter of bandwidth H, the filtered signalcan be completely reconstructed by making only 2H samples per second. Sampling the linefaster than 2H per second is pointless.
I
f the signal consists of V discrete levels, then Nyquisttheorem states that, for a noiseless channelMaximum data rate = 2H.log2 (V) bits per second. For a noisy channel with bandwidth is again H,knowing signal to noise ratio S/N, themaximum data rate according to Shannon is given asMaximum data rate = H.log2 (1+S/N) bits per second.

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