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MC0070 Operating Systems With Unix

MC0070 Operating Systems With Unix

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Published by Ajay Dogney

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Published by: Ajay Dogney on Aug 15, 2011
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MC0070 Operating Systems with Unix
1 |Page 
ASSIGNMENT SET ± 11.
 
Define
proc
ess
. Expla
in
th
e
major compo
nen
t
s
o
a proc
ess
?
A
ns:Process:
A
process can be simply defined as a program in execution. Process along with programcode, comprises of program counter value, Processor register contents, values of variables, stack and program data.
A
process is created and terminated, and it follows some or all of the states of processtransition; such as New, Ready, Running, Waiting, and Exit. Process is not the same as program.
A
  process is more than a program code.
A
process is an µactive¶ entity as oppose to program whichconsidered being a µpassive¶ entity.
A
s we all know that a program is an algorithm expressed in some programming language. Being a passive, a program is only a part of process. Process, on the other hand, includes:·Current value of Program Counter (PC)·Contents of the processors registers·Value of the variables·The process stack, which typically contains temporary data such as subroutine parameter, returnaddress, and temporary variables.·
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data section that contains global variables.·
A
process is the unit of work in a system.
A
process has certain attributes that directly affect execution, these include:PID - The PID stands for the process identification. This is a unique number that defines the processwithin the kernel.PPID - This is the processes Parent PID, the creator of the process.UID - The User ID number of the user that owns this process.EUID - The effective User ID of the process.GID - The Group ID of the user that owns this process.EGID - The effective Group User ID that owns this process.Priority - The priority that this process runs at.To view a process you use the ps command.# ps -lF S UID PID PPID C PRI NI P SZ:RSS WCH
A
 N TTY TIME COMD30 S 0 11660 145 1 26 20 * 66:20 88249f10 ttyq 6 0:00 rlogind
 
 
MC0070 Operating Systems with Unix
2 |Page 
The F field: This is the flag field. It uses hexadecimal values which are added to show the value of the flag bits for the process. For a normal user process this will be 30, meaning it is loaded intomemory.The S field: The S field is the state of the process, the two most common values are S for Sleepingand R for Running.
A
n important value to look for is X, which means the process is waiting for memory to become available.PID field: The PID shows the Process ID of each process. This value should be unique. GenerallyPID are allocated lowest to highest, but wrap at some point. This value is necessary for you to send asignal to a process such as the KILL signal.PRI field: This stands for priority field. The lower the value the higher the value. This refers to the process NICE value. It will range from 0 to 39. The default is 20, as a process uses the CPU thesystem will raise the nice value.P flag: This is the processor flag. On the SGI this refers to the processor the process is running on.SZ field: This refers to the SIZE field. This is the total number of pages in the process. Each page is4096 bytes.TTY field: This is the terminal assigned to your process.Time field: The cumulative execution time of the process in minutes and seconds.COMD field: The command that was executed.In Process model, all software on the computer is organized into a number of sequential processes.
A
  process includes PC, registers, and variables. Conceptually, each process has its own virtual CPU. Inreality, the CPU switches back and forth among processes.
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A
ns:
A
: Mainframe Operating System :Mainframe OS can be used by many users at the same time so it must need to service for many users.a mainframe OS is more powerful and expensive than pc OS. Mainframe OS designed to huge process from many users and it means, it manages lots of I/O for many users, Mainframe OS offersthree kinds of service batch, transaction processing and timesharing.
 
 
MC0070 Operating Systems with Unix
3 |Page 
B: Embedded Operating System :
A
n embedded operating system is an operating system for U. These operating systems are designedto be compact, efficient, and reliable, forsaking many functions that non-embedded computer operating systems provide, and which may not be used by the specialized applications they run. Theyare frequently also real-time operating systems, and the term
 RTOS 
is often used as a synonym for 
embedded operating system
.
A
n important difference between most embedded operating systems and desktop operating systemsis that the application, including the operating system, is usually statically linked together into asingle executable image. Unlike a desktop operating system, the embedded operating system doesnot load and execute applications. This means that the system is only able to run a single application.C: Servers Operating Systems:Server-oriented operating systems tend to have certain features in common that make them moresuitable for the server environment, such as
y
 
GUI not available or optional
y
 
ability to reconfigure and update both hardware and software to some extent without restart,
y
 
advanced backup facilities to permit regular and frequent online backups of critical data,
y
 
transparent data transfer between different volumes or devices,
y
 
flexible and advanced networking capabilities,
y
 
automation capabilities such as daemons in UNIX and services in Windows, and
y
 
tight system security, with advanced user, resource, data, and memory protection.Server-oriented operating systems can, in many cases, interact with hardware sensors to detectconditions such as overheating, processor and disk failure, and consequently alert an operator or takeremedial measures itself.Because servers must supply a restricted range of services to perhaps many users while a desktopcomputer must carry out a wide range of functions required by its user, the requirements of anoperating system for a server are different from those of a desktop machine. While it is possible for an operating system to make a machine both provide services and respond quickly to therequirements of a user, it is usual to use different operating systems on servers and desktopmachines. Some operating systems are supplied in both server and desktop versions with similar user interface.The desktop versions of the Windows and Mac OS X operating systems are deployed on a minorityof servers, as are some proprietary mainframe operating systems, such as z/OS. The dominantoperating systems among servers are UNIX-based or open source kernel distributions, such as Linux(the kernel).The rise of the microprocessor-based server was facilitated by the development of Unix to run on thex86 microprocessor architecture. The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems also runs onx86 hardware, and since Windows NT have been available in versions suitable for server use.While the role of server and desktop operating systems remains distinct, improvements in thereliability of both hardware and operating systems have blurred the distinction between the twoclasses. Today, many desktop and server operating systems share similar code bases, differing

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