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Table Of Contents

Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves
1.1 Terminology and Definitions
1.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation
1.2.1 Analogy-Based Approach
1.2.2 Volumetric Estimates
1.2.3 Performance Analysis
Fundamentals
2.2.2 Nonclastic Sedimentary Rocks
2.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum
2.3.1 Source Rock and Generation of Petroleum
2.3.2 Petroleum Migration and Accumulation
2.3.3 Classification of Petroleum Reservoir-Forming Traps
2.4 Types of Hydrocarbon Traps on the Norwegian Continental Shelf
3.1 Continuum Mechanics
3.2 Porosity
3.3 Saturation
3.3.1 Residual Saturation
3.3.2 Laboratory Determination of Residual Oil and Water Saturation
3.4 Reservoir Pressure and Distribution of Fluid Phases
3.5 Pressure Distribution in Reservoirs
3.6 Exercises
Porosity
4.1 General Aspects
4.2 Models of Porous Media
4.2.1 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Parallel Cylindrical Pores
4.3 Porosity Distribution
4.4 Measurement of Porosity
4.4.1 Full-Diameter Core Analysis
4.4.2 Grain-Volume Measurements Based on Boyle’s Law
4.4.3 Bulk-Volume Measurements
4.4.4 Pore-Volume Measurement
4.4.5 Fluid-Summation Method
4.5 Uncertainty in Porosity Estimation
4.6 Porosity Estimation from Well Logs
4.7 Exercises
Permeability
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Darcy’s Law
5.3 Conditions for Liquid Permeability Measurements
5.4 Units of Permeability
5.5 Gas Permeability Measurements
5.5.1 Turbulent Gas Flow in a Core Sample
5.6 Factors Affecting Permeability Values
5.6.1 The Klinkenberg Effect
5.7 Exercises
Wettability and Capillary Pressure
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Surface and Interfacial Tension
6.3 Rock Wettability
6.4 Contact Angle and Interfacial Tension
6.5 Capillary Pressure
6.5.1 Capillary Pressure Across Curved Surfaces
6.5.2 Interfacial Tension
6.5.3 Capillary Pressure in a Cylindrical Tube
6.6 Capillary Pressure and Fluid Saturation
6.7 Pore Size Distribution
6.8 Saturation Distribution in Reservoirs
6.9 Laboratory Measurements of Capillary Pressure
6.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes
6.10.1 Hysterisis in Contact Angle
6.10.2 Capillary Hysterisis
6.11 Exercises
Relative Permeability
7.1 Definitions
7.2 Rock Wettability and Relative Permeabilities
7.3 Drainage/Imbibition Relative Permeability Curves
7.4 Residual Phase Saturations
7.5 Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeability Data
7.6 Exercises
Compressibility of Reservoir Rock and Fluids
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Compressibility of Solids, Liquids and Gases
8.2.1 Rock Stresses and Compressibility
8.2.2 Compressibility of Liquids
8.2.3 Compressibility of Gases
8.3 Deformation of Porous Rock
8.3.1 Compressibility Measurements
8.3.2 Betti’s Reciprocal Theorem of Elasticity
8.4 Compressibility for Reservoir Rock Saturated with Fluids
8.5 Exercises
Properties of Reservoir Fluids
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Definitions
9.3 Representation of hydrocarbons
9.3.1 Ternary diagrams
9.4 Natural gas and gas condensate fields
9.5 Oil fields
9.6 Relation between reservoir and surface volumes
9.7 Determination of the basic PVT parameters
9.8 Exercises
Reservoir Parameter Estimation Methods
Material Balance Equation
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Dry gas expansion
10.3 A general oil reservoir
10.3.1 A1: Expansion of oil
10.3.2 A2: Expansion of originally dissolved gas
10.3.3 B: Expansion of gas cap gas
10.3.5 Production terms
10.4 The material balance equation
10.5 Linearized material balance equation
10.6 Dissolved gas expansion drive
10.7 Gas cap expansion drive
10.8 Water influx
10.9 Exercises
Well Test Analysis
11.1 Introduction
11.1.1 Systems of Uunits Used in Well Test Analysis
11.2 Wellbore Storage Period
11.3 Semi Logarithmic Period
11.3.1 Diffusivity Equation
11.3.2 Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation
11.3.3 Gas Reservoir
11.3.4 The Solution of the Diffusitivity Equation in Dimensionless Form
11.3.5 Wellbore Pressure for Semi Logarithmic Data
11.4 Semi Steady State Period
11.4.1 Average Reservoir Pressure
11.4.2 Well Skin Factor
11.4.3 Wellbore Pressure at Semi Steady State
11.5 Wellbore Pressure Solutions
11.5.2 Recognition of Semi Logarithmic Data
11.6 Exercises
Methods of Well Testing
12.1 Pressure Tests
12.2 Pressure Drawdown Test
12.2.1 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Logarithmic Conditions
12.2.2 Pressure Drawdown Test Under Semi Steady State Conditions
12.3 Pressure Build-Up Test
12.5 Exercises
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Petroleum Book

Petroleum Book

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Published by Bitao Lai

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Published by: Bitao Lai on Aug 16, 2011
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