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Table Of Contents

The Digitalization of the PSTN
and switching became easier too
Optimized Telephony Routing
The PSTN circa 1960
The Present PSTN
TDM timing
if the inputs are already digital
The fix
Comparing clocks
PDH principle
PDH hierarchies
Framing and overhead
PDH overhead
OAM
PDH Justification
motivation and history
First step
PDH limitations
Idea behind SONET
Standardization !
architecture
Layers
SONET architecture
STS, OC, etc
rates and
frame structure
SONET / SDH frames
SONET STS-1 frame
SDH STM-1 frame
SONET/SDH rates
SONET/SDH tributaries
STS-1 frame structure
STM-1 frame structure
Even higher rates
Byte-interleaving
Scrambling
STS-1 Overhead
STM-1 Overhead
SONET Justification
B2, K1, K2, D4-D12 (line overhead) (line overhead)
Payloads and
Mappings
STS-1 HOP SPE structure
STS-1 HOP
STS-1 Path overhead
LOP
SONET/SDH : VT/VC types
LO Path overhead
Payload capacity
LOP overhead
SDH Containers
Formally …
Multiplexing
More multiplexing
All SDH mappings
All SONET mappings
Tributary mapping types
Protection and
Rings
What is protection ?
How does it work?
Linear 1+1 protection
Linear 1:1 protection
Linear 1:N protection
Two fiber vs. Four-fiber rings
Unidirectional vs. bidirectional
UPSR vs. BLSR (MS-SPRing) (MS-SPRing)
UPSR
BLSR
VCAT and
LCAS
Concatenation
Concatenation (cont.) (cont.)
Contiguous Concatenation: STS-3c
STS-N vs. STS-Nc
Virtual Concatenation
SDH virtually concatenated VCs
SONET virtually concatenated VTs
Efficiency comparison
PDH VCAT
PDH VCAT overhead octet
Delay compensation
VCAT buffering
Multiframes and superframes
LCAS – how does it work?
LCAS control messages
H4 format
H4 format – some comments
LCAS – adding a member (1)
LCAS – adding a member (2)
LCAS – service preservation
Handling Packet
Packet Data
Data
Packet over SONET
POS problems
LAPS
GFP architecture
GFP frame structure
GFP payload header
GFP modes
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So Net

So Net

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Published by Dao Xuan Hoa

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Published by: Dao Xuan Hoa on Aug 17, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/31/2011

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