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Class IX - India and the Contemporary World-I

Class IX - India and the Contemporary World-I

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Published by Mantra
NCERT Class IX - India and the Contemporary World-I, with all chapters compiled into one document unlike the ncert website.
NCERT Class IX - India and the Contemporary World-I, with all chapters compiled into one document unlike the ncert website.

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Published by: Mantra on Sep 27, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/09/2014

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In Section I, you will read about the French Revolution, the Russian Revolution,and the rise of Nazism. In different ways all these events were important in themaking of the modern world.Chapter I is on the French Revolution. Today we often take the ideas of liberty,freedom and equality for granted. But we need to remind ourselves that these ideasalso have a history. By looking at the French Revolution you will read a small partof that history. The French Revolution led to the end of monarchy in France. Asociety based on privileges gave way to a new system of governance. The Declarationsof the Rights of Man during the revolution, announced the coming of a new time. The idea that all individuals had rights and could claim equality became part of anew language of politics. These notions of equality and freedom emerged as the centralideas of a new age; but in different countries they were reinterpreted and rethoughtin many different ways. The anti-colonial movements in India and China, Africa andSouth-America, produced ideas that were innovative and original, but they spoke ina language that gained currency only from the late eighteenth century.In Chapter II, you will read about the coming of socialism in Europe, and the dramaticevents that forced the ruling monarch, Tsar Nicholas II, to give up power. The RussianRevolution sought to change society in a different way. It raised the question of economic equality and the well-being of workers and peasants. The chapter will tellyou about the changes that were initiated by the new Soviet government, the problemsit faced and the measures it undertook. But while Soviet Russia pushed ahead withindustrialisation and mechanisation of agriculture, it denied the rights of citizensthat were essential to the working of a democratic society. The ideals of socialism,
 EVENTS AND PROCESSES
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however, became part of the anti-colonial movements in different countries. Today the Soviet Union has broken up and socialism is in crisis but through the twentiethcentury it has been a powerful force in the shaping of the contemporary world.Chapter III will take you to Germany. It will discuss the rise of Hitler and thepolitics of Nazism. You will read about the children and women in Nazi Germany,about schools and concentration camps. You will see how Nazism denied variousminorities a right to live, how it drew upon a long tradition of anti-Jewish feelingsto persecute the Jews, and how it waged a relentless battle against democracy andsocialism. But the story of Nazism’s rise is not only about a few specific events,about massacres and killings. It is about the working of an elaborate and frightening system which operated at different levels. Some in India were impressed with theideas of Hitler but most watched the rise of Nazism with horror. The history of the modern world is not simply a story of the unfolding of freedomand democracy. It has also been a story of violence and tyranny, death and destruction.

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