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January 27, 2005 11:44 L24-CH05 Sheet number 1 Page number 153 black
153
CHAPTER 5
The Derivative in Graphing and Applications
EXERCISE SET 5.1
1. (a)
>
0 and

>
0
y x
(b)
>
0 and

<
0
y x
(c)
<
0 and

>
0
y x
(d)
<
0 and

<
0
y x
2. (a)
y x
(b)
y x
(c)
y x
(d)
y x
3.
A
:
dy/dx <
0
, d
2
y/dx
2
>
0
B
:
dy/dx >
0
, d
2
y/dx
2
<
0
:
dy/dx <
0
, d
2
y/dx
2
<
0
4.
A
:
dy/dx <
0
, d
2
y/dx
2
<
0
B
:
dy/dx <
0
, d
2
y/dx
2
>
0
:
dy/dx >
0
, d
2
y/dx
2
<
0
5.
An inﬂection point occurs when

changes sign: at
x
=
1
,
0
,
1 and 2.
6. (a)
(0)
<
(1) since
>
0 on (0
,
1).
(b)
(1)
>
(2) since
<
0 on (1
,
2).
(c)
(0)
>
0 by inspection.
(d)
(1) = 0 by inspection.
(e)

(0)
<
0 since
is decreasing there.
(f)

(2) = 0 since
has a minimum there.
7. (a)
[4
,
6]
(b)
[1
,
4] and [6
,
7]
(c)
(1
,
2) and (3
,
5)
(d)
(2
,
3) and (5
,
7)
(e)
x
= 2
,
3
,
5

January 27, 2005 11:44 L24-CH05 Sheet number 2 Page number 154 black
154 Chapter 5
8.
(1
,
2) (2
,
3) (3
,
4) (4
,
5) (5
,
6) (6
,
7)
+ +

+
+ +
9. (a)
is increasing on [1
,
3]
(b)
is decreasing on (
−∞
,
1]
,
[3
,
+
]
(c)
is concave up on (
−∞
,
2)
,
(4
,
+
)
(d)
is concave down on (2
,
4)
(e)
points of inﬂection at
x
= 2
,
4
10. (a)
is increasing on (
−∞
,
+
)
(b)
is nowhere decreasing
(c)
is concave up on (
−∞
,
1)
,
(3
,
+
)
(d)
is concave down on (1
,
3)
(e)
has points of inﬂection at
x
= 1
,
3
11.
(
x
) = 2(
x
3
/
2)

(
x
) = 2
(a)
[3
/
2
,
+
)
(b)
(
−∞
,
3
/
2]
(c)
(
−∞
,
+
)
(d)
nowhere
(e)
none
12.
(
x
) =
2(2 +
x
)

(
x
) =
2
(a)
(
−∞
,
2]
(b)
[
2
,
+
)
(c)
nowhere
(d)
(
−∞
,
+
)
(e)
none
13.
(
x
) = 6(2
x
+ 1)
2

(
x
) = 24(2
x
+ 1)
(a)
(
−∞
,
+
)
(b)
nowhere
(c)
(
1
/
2
,
+
)
(d)
(
−∞
,
1
/
2)
(e)
1
/
2
14.
(
x
) = 3(4
x
2
)

(
x
) =
6
x
(a)
[
2
,
2]
(b)
(
−∞
,
2], [2
,
+
)
(c)
(
−∞
,
0)
(d)
(0
,
+
)
(e)
0
15.
(
x
) = 12
x
2
(
x
1)

(
x
) = 36
x
(
x
2
/
3)
(a)
[1
,
+
)
(b)
(
−∞
,
1]
(c)
(
−∞
,
0), (2
/
3
,
+
)
(d)
(0
,
2
/
3)
(e)
0
,
2
/
3
16.
(
x
) =
x
(4
x
2
15
x
+ 18)

(
x
) = 6(
x
1)(2
x
3)
(a)
[0
,
+
),
(b)
(
−∞
,
0]
(c)
(
−∞
,
1), (3
/
2
,
+
)
(d)
(1
,
3
/
2)
(e)
1
,
3
/
2
17.
(
x
) =
3(
x
2
3
x
+ 1)(
x
2
x
+ 1)
3

(
x
) =6
x
(2
x
2
8
x
+ 5)(
x
2
x
+ 1)
4
(a)
[
3
52
,
3+
52
]
(b)
(
−∞
,
3
52
], [
3+
52
,
+
)
(c)
(0
,
2
62
), (2 +
62
,
+
)
(d)
(
−∞
,
0), (2
62
,
2 +
62
)
(e)
0
,
2
6
/
2
,
2 +
6
/
2
18.
(
x
) =
x
2
2(
x
+ 2)
2

(
x
) =2
x
(
x
2
6)(
x
+ 2)
3
(a)
(
−∞
,
2)
,
(
2
,
+
)
(b)
(
2
,
2)
(c)
(
−∞
,
6), (0
,
6)
(d)
(
6
,
0), (
6
,
+
)
(e)
none
19.
(
x
) =2
x
+ 13(
x
2
+
x
+ 1)
2
/
3

(
x
) =
2(
x
+ 2)(
x
1)9(
x
2
+
x
+ 1)
5
/
3
(a)
[
1
/
2
,
+
)
(b)
(
−∞
,
1
/
2]
(c)
(
2
,
1)
(d)
(
−∞
,
2)
,
(1
,
+
)
(e)
2
,
1

January 27, 2005 11:44 L24-CH05 Sheet number 3 Page number 155 black
Exercise Set 5.1 155
20.
(
x
) =4(
x
1
/
4)3
x
2
/
3

(
x
) =4(
x
+ 1
/
2)9
x
5
/
3
(a)
[1
/
4
,
+
)
(b)
(
−∞
,
1
/
4]
(c)
(
−∞
,
1
/
2), (0
,
+
)
(d)
(
1
/
2
,
0)
(e)
1
/
2
,
0
21.
(
x
) =4(
x
2
/
3
1)3
x
1
/
3

(
x
) =4(
x
5
/
3
+
x
)9
x
7
/
3
(a)
[
1
,
0]
,
[1
,
+
)
(b)
(
−∞
,
1]
,
[0
,
1]
(c)
(
−∞
,
0), (0
,
+
)
(d)
nowhere
(e)
none
22.
(
x
) =23
x
1
/
3
1

(
x
) =
29
x
4
/
3
(a)
[
1
,
0]
,
[1
,
+
)
(b)
(
−∞
,
1]
,
[0
,
1]
(c)
(
−∞
,
0)
,
(0
,
+
)
(d)
nowhere
(e)
none
23.
(
x
) =
xe
x
2
/
2

(
x
) = (
1 +
x
2
)
e
x
2
/
2
(a)
(
−∞
,
0]
(b)
[0
,
+
)
(c)
(
−∞
,
1), (1
,
+
)
(d)
(
1
,
1)
(e)
1
,
1
24.
(
x
) = (2
x
2
+ 1)
e
x
2

(
x
) = 2
x
(2
x
2
+ 3)
e
x
2
(a)
(
−∞
,
+
)
(b)
none
(c)
(0
,
+
)
(d)
(
−∞
,
0)
(e)
0
25.
(
x
) =
xx
2
+ 4

(
x
) =
x
2
4(
x
2
+ 4)
2
(a)
[0
,
+
)
(b)
(
−∞
,
0]
(c)
(
2
,
+2)
(d)
(
−∞
,
2)
,
(2
,
+
)
(e)
2
,
+2
26.
(
x
) =
x
2
(1 + 3ln
x
)

(
x
) =
x
(5 + 6ln
x
)
(a)
[
e
1
/
3
,
+
)
(b)
(0
,e
1
/
3
]
(c)
(
e
5
/
6
,
+
)
(d)
(0
,e
5
/
6
)
(e)
e
5
/
6
27.
(
x
) =2
x
1 + (
x
2
1)
2

(
x
) =
23
x
4
2
x
2
2[1 + (
x
2
1)
2
]
2
(a)
[0 +
)
(b)
(
−∞
,
0]
(c)
1+
7
3
,
1
7
3
,
1
7
3
,
1+
7
3
(d)
,
1+
7
3
,
1
7
3
,
1
7
3
,
1+
7
3
,
+
(e)
four:
±

1
±
73
28.
(
x
) =23
x
1
/
3
1
x
4

/
3

(
x
) =2
1 + 3
x
4
/
3
9
x
4
/
3
1
x
4
/
3
3
/
2
(a)
[0
,
1]
(b)
[
1
,
0]
(c)
(
1
,
3
3
/
4
)
,
(0
,
3
3
/
4
,
1)
(d)
(3
3
/
4
,
0)
,
(3
3
/
4
(e)
±
3
3
/
4
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