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On Blind Mice and the Elephant∗

On Blind Mice and the Elephant∗

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Published by TorrentFreak_
A thorough understanding of the network impact of emerging large- scale distributed systems – where traffic flows and what it costs – must encompass users’ behavior, the traffic they generate and the topology over which that traffic flows. In the case of BitTorrent, however, previous studies have been limited by narrow perspectives that restrict such analysis.
This paper presents a comprehensive view of BitTorrent, using data from a representative set of 500,000 users sampled over a two year period, located in 169 countries and 3,150 networks. This unique perspective captures unseen trends and reveals sev- eral unexpected features of the largest peer-to-peer system. For instance, over the past year total BitTorrent traffic has increased by 12%, driven by 25% increases in per-peer hourly download volume despite a 10% decrease in the average number of online peers. We also observe stronger diurnal usage patterns and, surprisingly given the bandwidth-intensive nature of the application, a close alignment between these patterns and overall traffic. Considering the aggregated traffic across access links, this has potential implica- tions on BitTorrent-associated costs for Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Using data from a transit ISP, we find a disproportionately large impact under a commonly used burstable (95th-percentile) billing model. Last, when examining BitTorrent traffic’s paths, we find that for over half its users, most network traffic never reaches large transit networks, but is instead carried by small transit ISPs. This raises questions on the effectiveness of most in-network monitoring systems to capture trends on peer-to-peer traffic and further motivates our approach. 1
A thorough understanding of the network impact of emerging large- scale distributed systems – where traffic flows and what it costs – must encompass users’ behavior, the traffic they generate and the topology over which that traffic flows. In the case of BitTorrent, however, previous studies have been limited by narrow perspectives that restrict such analysis.
This paper presents a comprehensive view of BitTorrent, using data from a representative set of 500,000 users sampled over a two year period, located in 169 countries and 3,150 networks. This unique perspective captures unseen trends and reveals sev- eral unexpected features of the largest peer-to-peer system. For instance, over the past year total BitTorrent traffic has increased by 12%, driven by 25% increases in per-peer hourly download volume despite a 10% decrease in the average number of online peers. We also observe stronger diurnal usage patterns and, surprisingly given the bandwidth-intensive nature of the application, a close alignment between these patterns and overall traffic. Considering the aggregated traffic across access links, this has potential implica- tions on BitTorrent-associated costs for Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Using data from a transit ISP, we find a disproportionately large impact under a commonly used burstable (95th-percentile) billing model. Last, when examining BitTorrent traffic’s paths, we find that for over half its users, most network traffic never reaches large transit networks, but is instead carried by small transit ISPs. This raises questions on the effectiveness of most in-network monitoring systems to capture trends on peer-to-peer traffic and further motivates our approach. 1

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On Blind Mice and the Elephant
Understanding the Network Impact of a Large Distributed System
John S. Otto
Mario A. Sánchez
David R. Choffnes
Fabián E. Bustamante
Georgos Siganos
Northwestern University
Telefónica Research
ABSTRACT
Athoroughunderstandingofthenetworkimpactofemerginglarge-scale distributed systems – where traffic flows and what it costs –must encompass users’ behavior, the traffic they generate and thetopology over which that traffic flows. In the case of BitTorrent,however, previousstudieshavebeenlimitedbynarrowperspectivesthat restrict such analysis.This paper presents a comprehensive view of BitTorrent, usingdata from a representative set of 500,000 users sampled over atwo year period, located in 169 countries and 3,150 networks.This unique perspective captures unseen trends and reveals sev-eral unexpected features of the largest peer-to-peer system. Forinstance, over the past year total BitTorrent traffic has
increased by12%
, driven by 25% increases in per-peer hourly download volumedespite a 10% decrease in the average number of online peers.We also observe stronger diurnal usage patterns and, surprisinglygiven the bandwidth-intensive nature of the application, a closealignment between these patterns and overall traffic. Consideringthe aggregated traffic across access links, this has potential implica-tions on BitTorrent-associated costs for Internet Service Providers(ISPs). Using data from a transit ISP, we find a disproportionatelylarge impact under a commonly used burstable (95th-percentile)billing model. Last, when examining BitTorrent traffic’s paths,we find that for over half its users, most network traffic neverreaches large transit networks, but is instead carried by small transitISPs. This raises questions on the effectiveness of most in-network monitoring systems to capture trends on peer-to-peer traffic andfurther motivates our approach.
1
Categories and Subject Descriptors
C.2.4 [
Communication Networks
]: Distributed Systems
 Dis-tributed applications
; C.2.5 [
Communication Networks
]: Local
A variation on the Indian fable of the seven blind men and theelephant.
1
c
ACM, 2011. This is the author’s version of the work. It isposted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not forredistribution. The definitive version was published in Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 2011.
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work forpersonal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies arenot made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copiesbear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, torepublish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specificpermission and/or a fee.
SIGCOMM’11,
August 15–19, 2011, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Copyright 2011 ACM 978-1-4503-0797-0/11/08 ...$10.00.
and Wide-Area Networks—
 Internet 
; C.4 [
Performance of Sys-tems
]: Measurement techniques
General Terms
Experimentation, Performance, Measurement
Keywords
Internet-scale Systems, Peer-to-Peer, Evaluation
1. INTRODUCTION
The network impact of popular, widely distributed serviceshas implications for capacity planning, traffic engineering, andinterdomain business relationships. Accurately characterizing andunderstanding this impact requires a view of the service in questionthat includes not only the traffic it generates and the networks ittraverses, but also the underlying user behaviors that drive it. Sucha comprehensive view is typically impossible to capture from anysingle network or in-network monitoring system.It comes as no surprise, then, that the overall impact of Bit-Torrent, arguably the most widely distributed peer-to-peer system,remains unknown.In this paper, we present the first comprehensive study of BitTorrent based on a longitudinal, representative view from thenetwork edge, including two years of application traces from over500,000 user IPs located in 3,150 ASes and 169 countries.Our study reveals BitTorrent usage trends and traffic patterns thathave been previously hidden or obscured by limited perspectives.After demonstrating the representativeness of our dataset as asample of the overall BitTorrent system (Sec. 3), we discuss trendsregarding how users interact with the system. We find that whilethe number of concurrent active users has decreased since 2008,the overall volume of traffic that BitTorrent generates has grown by12%, likely due in part to increased bandwidth capacities. Whilesession times have also decreased over this period (by 21%), thetemporal patterns behind these sessions are increasingly alignedwith those of rest of Internet traffic, despite BitTorrent’s knownhigh-bandwidth demands. This shift in usage patterns suggests anincreasing role for BitTorrent on ISPs’ infrastructure and costs.After describing key trends regarding
how
BitTorrent is beingused, we then focus on
where
the corresponding traffic is flowing.We leverage hundreds of millions of traceroute measurementsbetween peers to map the vast majority (89%) of BitTorrent trafficto the networks it traverses. Our analysis reveals that the trafficsurprisingly exhibits significant locality across geography (32%of BitTorrent traffic stays in the country of origin) and networks(49% of traffic is intradomain or crosses a single peering orsibling AS link). Using a recent network classification scheme,
 
we unexpectedly find that most traffic does not reach the coreof the network. Among other points, this raises questions onthe effectiveness of in-network monitoring approaches to capturetrends on BitTorrent traffic and further motivates our approach.Using information about where BitTorrent traffic is flowing andwhen it is generated, we model its contribution to ISPs’ costs. Weobserve that, under the 95th-percentile billing model typically usedbetween transit ISPs and their customers, the
time
at which trafficoccurs can be as important as the volume of traffic. Incorporatingtraffic volumes from a large, global ISP, using this cost model, wefind that current time-of-day patterns of BitTorrent often result insignificantly higher cost, byte-for-byte, when compared to othertraffic on the network.In sum, our results highlight how limited perspectives for ana-lyzing Internet-wide systems do not generalize, demonstrating theneed for comprehensive views when analyzing global features of such widely distributed systems. One application of our analyses isenabling ISPs to better understand the impact of such systems andreason about the effects of alternative traffic management policies.
2. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
P2P systems have received much attention from operators andthe research community due in part to their widespread popularityand their potential network impact. Among P2P systems, BitTor-rent is the most popular one, potentially accounting for between20% and 57% of P2P file-sharing traffic [17, 22]. A numberof studies provide detailed summaries of the BitTorrent protocol,conventions and dynamics [11,12,19,20]. In this paper, we focuson data connections between peers, the flows they generate, thenetwork paths they traverse and their temporal characteristics.Numerousstudies haveanalyzedP2P usagetrendsand attemptedto characterize the overall network impact from various perspec-tives based on either simulations or limited perspectives [14,15,17,21,22,25]. Conclusions vary considerably among studies, due inpart to variations in P2P usage in each ISP and the challenges withidentifying P2P traffic from network flow summaries (e.g., due torandomizedports oruseofconnectionencryption). Ourstudyis thefirst to examine the network impact of the BitTorrent P2P system,based on the perspective of a set of users distributed over severalthousandnetworksworldwide. Sincethesetracesaregatheredfromwithin the application, they are not subject to classification errors.Given the potential impact of P2P-associated cross-ISP trafficon network operational costs, several studies have investigatedapproaches to evaluate and improve P2P traffic’s locality [5, 6,13, 16, 18, 30]. Xie et al. [30] base their results on testbedevaluations in a small number of ISPs, Piatek et al. [18] use a singlevantage point outside of classical research platforms, and Cuevaset al. [6] simulate peer interactions based on information derivedfrom tracker scrape results. As in some of our previous work [5],we rely instead on a global view and actual BitTorrent connectionsto evaluate locality aspects of this system. Here we move beyondcoarse-grained locality analysis in an attempt to understand the costassociated with BitTorrent traffic using a detailed Internet map thatcombines public BGP feeds with peer-based traceroute data [3]. Aswe demonstrate in Section 5.1, network paths collected from end-users are indispensable to determine the path that BitTorrent traffictakes through the network.Understanding how P2P-associated traffic affects an ISP’s tran-sit charges is important for determining subscriber charges andinforming traffic engineering policies. Following the approachused by Stanojevic et al. [23] (which examined the cost impact of individual ISP subscribers’ traffic), we are the first to apply thegame-theoretic Shapley analysis to examine the relative cost of interdomain BitTorrent traffic under the common 95th-percentilecharging model.
3. DATASETS
We now describe the traces we use in the rest of this study.We posit that this dataset comprises the first comprehensive andrepresentative view of BitTorrent. The following paragraphsdemonstrate each of these properties in turn.
3.1 A Comprehensive View of BitTorrent
Our study is based on the largest collection of detailed end-user traces from a P2P system. Specifically, we use data gatheredthrough users of the AquaLab’s ongoing Ono [5] and NEWS [4]projects, our
vantage points (VP)
, collectively representing morethan 1,260,000 installations. Our data collection software, im-plemented as extensions to the Vuze BitTorrent client [28], peri-odically report application and network statistics, excluding anyinformation that can identify the downloaded content.
2
This datasetis comprehensive in that it is longitudinal across time and covers abroad range of networks and geographic regions.To inform BitTorrent usage trends during the past year (Sec. 4),we use data from the second week of November 2008 and everytwo months from November 2009 through November 2010 (about1TB of trace data). For our detailed study of BitTorrent traffic,we use continuous data from March through May 2010 (Secs. 5-6).Altogether, our dataset includes traces from more than 500,000 IPslocated in 3,150 ASes and 169 countries.Thisdatasetincludesper-connectiontransferdata, suchassourceand destination (our vantage points and the peers they connect to),current transfer rates at 30-second intervals, and the cumulativevolume of data transferred in each direction for each connection.It also allows us to compute user session time, i.e. the length of time that a user runs BitTorrent.In addition to passively gathered data, the dataset containstraceroutes to a subset of peers connected to each vantage point.Targets for the probes are selected at random from connected peers,and at most one traceroute is performed at a time (to limit probingoverhead). Eachmeasurementisperformedusingthehost’sbuilt-intraceroute command. From March through May 2010, our datasetcomprises 202 million traceroute measurements. In Sec. 5.1, wediscuss how we use these measurements to map per-connectionflows to the AS paths they traverse.
3.2 Representativeness
We now analyze the representativeness of our dataset as a sampleof activity in the Internet-wide BitTorrent system. While thevantage points are limited by the set of users who voluntarilyinstall our extensions, we do not expect to find any strong platformor language-specific bias that could impact our results. TheVuze BitTorrent client, as well as our two instrumented plugins,run on all major platforms and are translated into nearly everylanguage. There are several other potential sources of bias such asextension-specific behavior and the distribution of vantage pointsin terms of geography and networks, the peers they connect to,and the BitTorrent clients those peers use. We address these inthe following paragraphs.We first account for bias introduced by the extensions that ourVPs run. While NEWS uses BitTorrent traffic to detect service-level network events without affecting the application, Ono biasespeer selection using CDN redirections to reduce cross-ISP traffic.
2
Anonymized traces are available to researchers through theEdgeScope project. [10]
 
EU 52%NA 16%AS 23%SA 4%OC 3%AF 2%
(a) Vantage points
EU 52%NA 20%AS 19%SA 4%OC 3%AF 2%
(b) Connected peers
Figure 1: Distribution of BitTorrent users by continent for ourvantage points (left) and the set of all peers connected to ourvantage points (right) in November 2010. Both distributionsmatch closely but for small differences in North America andAsia.
Network type Vantage points Remote peersLarge transit 4.07% 5.18%Small transit 53.7% 51.6%Access providers 42.3% 43.2%
Table 1: Portion of VPs and remote peers located in each typeof network, suggesting that the VP population is representativeof the general BitTorrent population.
We avoid this bias by filtering out all data for connections that Onoselected for preferred peering.Given the default random peer selection strategy in BitTorrent,we expect that the remaining peers that the VPs connect to arerepresentative of the system as a whole. We evaluate this by testingfor similarities in geography, network topology, and BitTorrentclient use.We compare the VPs’ geographic distribution to that of the peersthey connect to, using geolocation information obtained from apopular IP-to-ASN mapping service [24]. Figure 1 shows, sideby side, the distribution of VPs and their connected peers percontinent. These distributions match closely, having equal portionsin Europe (52%), with small differences of 16/20% in NorthAmerica, and 23/19% in Asia.For reference, we also compare the observed distributions withthose reported in previous studies and find strong similarities.Zhang et al. [31] crawl tracker sites from 2008 to 2009 and reportthe number of BitTorrent users for the top-20 countries sorted bypeer population. These data show that 49% of users are in Europe,28% in North America and 18% in Asia. Note that these statisticsunder-represent the fractions of European and Asian peers sincemany countries in these regions did not appear in the top-20 list.This explains why North American peers are a larger portion of thepeers (28%) relative to our distributions (16/20%). The reportedfractions of European and Asian peers match closely those foundin our dataset.We also compare the distribution of VPs and remote peersin terms of network topology, by contrasting the number of IPaddresses per network class, following the scheme recently pro-posed by Dhamdhere and Dovrolis [7]. Table 1 shows that thesedistributions align – the portion of peers in each network classdiffers by at most 2%.Last, we determine whether there is any significant bias based onthe types of BitTorrent clients that our VPs connect to. This couldresult, for example, from Vuze peers preferentially connecting toClient Our Data (Nov 2009) Aug 2009 [27]
µ
Torrent 50.59% 56.81%Azureus/Vuze 22.48% 18.13%Mainline 9.28% 11.79%BitComet 5.29% 4.71%Transmission 2.68% 2.95%
Table 2: Comparison between connected client distribution inour dataset in November 2009 and results from a swarm crawlconducted in August 2009.
other Vuze peers. We evaluate this by comparing the distribution of BitTorrent clients connected to our VPs with that of an independentsource (Table 2). We use VP data from November 2009 and aclient distribution collected in August 2009 that is derived fromcrawls of 400 swarms [27]. As the table shows, there is a strongcorrespondence in both client rank and market share between thetwo sets.Overall, we find no strong evidence of significant bias in ourdataset using any of these metrics. In the following sections, we usethis dataset to analyze the network impact of BitTorrent, startingwith a description of observed usage patterns and trends.
4. BITTORRENT USAGE TRENDS
In this section, we use our BitTorrent traces to analyze severalkey usage trends that affect the system’s network impact. Inparticular, we find that despite reports of declining usage [17] theabsolute volume of BitTorrent traffic continues to rise. Further,we find that BitTorrent’s temporal usage patterns are increasinglyaligned with diurnal traffic patterns, which has implications for itscontribution to ISPs’ costs.
4.1 Sampling Methodology
Obtaining representative, longitudinal snapshots of BitTorrenttraffic and user behavior is challenging, given the high degreeof churn in the system. To enable comparisons across multipletime scales, we aggregate user statistics at one-hour granularity,then use random sampling of our dataset to obtain a constantnumber of users (1000) during each hour for inclusion in ouranalysis. We repeat this random sampling 5 times to derive astatistically significant average for each hour. In general, thestandard deviations of our samples are relatively small, and weinclude corresponding error bars in our figures.The following analysis focuses on comparisons using the secondweek of every 2 months over the year of study. In some cases, weuse data collected in November 2008 to analyze trends over twoyears.
4.2 Key Trends
In the following paragraphs, we examine trends in overallBitTorrent traffic in terms of number of connected peers and per-peer download volumes.We begin by examining the volume of traffic generated by indi-vidual peers. Figure 2 depicts average per-peer hourly downloadvolumes over one year, between November 2009 and 2010. Asthe figure shows, BitTorrent’s network impact in terms of hourlydownload volumes per-peer have grown consistently over thisperiod, increasing by 25% on average.Beyond the download volumes generated by users, we findtwo important and related trends that refer to
(1)
the numberof BitTorrent users and
(2)
the temporal patterns behind theiractivities. Variations in the number of connected peers may hint

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