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Research Design 3rd Submission

Research Design 3rd Submission

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Published by Joshua Arcaira

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Published by: Joshua Arcaira on Aug 18, 2011
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01/09/2013

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DE LA SALLE HEALTH SCIENCES INSTITUTE – COLLEGE OF MEDICINEDEPARTMENT OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINECM2 SY 2011-2012
OUTPUT 3: RESEARCH DESIGN (REVISED)
I. Group 1A, Dr. Jovilia M. AbongII.
Research Question:
Among students aged 13-14 with allergic rhinitis of selected schools inDasmariñas, Cavite, will exposure to air-conditioned school rooms affect the severity of their allergicrhinitis?
General Objective:
To determine if the exposure to the air-conditioning system affects the severityof allergic rhinitis in high school students aged 13-14, of selected schools in Dasmariñas, Cavite.
Specific Objectives:
1. To identify the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among high school students, aged 13-14, of selected schools in of Dasmariñas, Cavite based on their exposure to air-conditioned rooms.2. To identify the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among high school students, aged 13-14, of selected schools in Dasmariñas, Cavite based on their exposure to non-air-conditionedclassrooms.3. To determine the severity of allergic rhinitis according to ARIA classifications.4. To identify the risk factors of allergic rhinitis present in the classroom or school, such as pollen, molds, and cockroaches.5. To determine the number of hours exposed to the classroom with or without air-conditioningsystem according to ARIA classifications.6. Compare the severity of allergic rhinitis in students who are exposed to air-conditionedclassrooms and those who are not exposed to air-conditioned classrooms.III.
Background
a.
Research Hypothesis:
Exposure to air-conditioned rooms alleviates the symptoms andoccurrence of allergic rhinitis and poor ventilation leads to its severity. b.
Conceptual Framework:Exposure Variable Disease Variable
 Exposure to Air-conditioning System Decreased Severity of AllergicRhinitis and alleviation of symptoms1
 
Allergens/Irritants suchas pollen, molds,cockroaches, dustcollecting furniture, andchalk dust Number of hours spent inclassroom
Confounders
 
IV.
Design
a.
Operational definition of variables
i.
Dependent Variable – Allergic Rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis (often called allergies or hay fever) occurs when the immune system overreactsto particles in the air that you breathe. When the immune system attacks the particles in the body, it causes symptoms such as sneezing and a runny nose. Over the time, allergens may begin to affect you less, and the severity of the symptoms also decreases.
[1]
It is characterizedas the inflammation of nasal passages, usually associated with watery nasal discharge anditching of the nose and eyes after exposure to the allergen.Around two-thirds of people with allergic rhinitis manifest the symptoms before the ageof 30 but the age at which the symptoms occur may vary. Genetics greatly affects the chance of having allergic rhinitis of an individual. Usually if one or both parents have the disease, their offspring will have a high chance of inheriting the disease. People with allergic rhinitis can also be restricted by the disease in their day to day activities and this may result to increase in timeaway from school or work. Also, in the US, millions of dollars are spent every year for doctor services and medicine for treating the chronic illness. Symptoms of this illness are triggered bymany different allergens and these usually include plant pollens, molds, dust, and allergens produced by cats or dogs. The amount of these allergens is affected by the season as the spreadof pollens and spores are determined by the amount of wind in a particular season.
[2]
ii.
Independent Variable – Air-conditioning System
According to the Department of Health of Hong Kong, sudden change in temperature bothindoor and outdoor may activate the release of inflammatory agents. They stated that the roomshould be maintained at around 25 degrees Celsius.
[3]
 The air conditioner is a common appliance usually found in many buildings both privateand public. It is used to cool the air found indoors to make the people inside the building morecomfortable. Air conditioners nowadays are not only used for cooling the air, some types of air conditioners can warm the indoor air especially those that are found in places where peopleexperience the winter season. In addition to their air temperature changing capability, the air conditioners nowadays are also capable of filtering, disinfecting and dehumidifying the air tomake the people using the appliance more comfortable that is why the air conditioner is alsoregarded as “comfort-making-machine” by some people.
[4]
iii.
Confounding Variables:
Allergens are substances or particles that are foreign to the body and can cause allergic reactionin certain people. Pollens, molds, cockroaches, and dusts are examples of allergens which can be found in the environment. In managing allergies, it is suggested to reduce the level of exposure to these allergens.
[8]
2
 
Dust Mites are arachnids not visible by the naked eye that feed on flakes on dead humanskin. Mites do not bite humans or spread disease but rather allergy is triggered by the materialin the stool of dust mites. They are usually found indoors with high humidity (warm and damp).They are also found in carpets, bed sheets, pillows, mattresses and box springs, furniture andstuffed animals. They decrease in number when temperature decreases and at high altitude.
[1]
Animal dander is loose skin cells from animals which contain secretion from glands inthe animal’s skin. These skin cells floats in the air where they may be breathed in by people.The animal fur or hair is not an allergen, there might be dried saliva onto the hair that causesthe allergy.
[1]
Pollens cause allergic reaction. These pollens are tiny that comes from plants (trees,grasses, ragweed, etc.). The amount of pollen in the air plays a role in developing allergicreaction. There is likely increased amounts of pollen in hot, dry and windy days, while adecreased amount during cool, damp and rainy days.
[5]
According to an article by deShazo and Kemp, the spores coming from molds can be atrigger in releasing the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Also, according to them, molds thrives indamp environments such as air-conditioning vents, water traps, refrigerator drip trays, shower stalls, leaky sink and damp basements if not cleaned regularly and under certain conditions, thegrowth of these organisms can be considerable and exacerbate allergy symptoms.
[6]
Sinceallergic rhinitis is difficult to cure, the focus is on preventing the attack of the symptoms. Moldsare seen as cotton-like element that is usually in the color of gray, green, black or white. Thesemolds produce strong earthy and musty odors, although some are odor-free. The smell could bean indication of infection.
[9]
Many different triggers that may cause a student to experience symptoms of asthma andallergy are found inside a typical classroom. These triggers include the pollens from the plantsfound near or inside a classroom, dust mites and mold spores. The cleanliness of the room mayalso play a factor in triggering the allergic reactions. The students themselves may also carryallergens produced by their pet cats or dogs that may be attached to their clothes and theseallergens can be in contact with the students with asthma or allergy. Chalk dusts are alsousually the causes of allergic reactions inside the classroom since the teachers usually usechalks for writing on the green boards.
[7]
Chalk dusts are particles produced when a chalk crayon is used to write on chalkboards.These usually remain suspended in the air because these particles are not so heavy so as aresult, teachers and students usually inhale small amount of these and become trapped in themucous layers of the throat and upper lungs. This does not usually pose a threat to normal persons because the accumulated chalk dust is naturally expelled out through coughing and theremaining chalk dust is safely absorbed by the body. However, in persons with chronic breathing issues or allergic rhinitis these chalk dust can irritate their upper respiratory tract andtrigger their symptoms and can be dangerous for the person who inhaled the chalk dust.
[10]
Cockroaches are recognized as powerful indoor allergena. They are among the oldestliving species residing the earth. These creatures are hardy and adaptable that thrives in areas3

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