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Ten Books on Architecture, By Vitruvius

Ten Books on Architecture, By Vitruvius

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Ten Books on Architecture, by VitruviusThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: Ten Books on ArchitectureAuthor: VitruviusRelease Date: December 31, 2006 [EBook #20239]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK TEN BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE ***Produced by Chuck Greif, Melissa Er-Raqabi, Ted Garvin andthe Online Distributed Proofreading Team athttp://www.pgdp.net
THE TEN BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE
TRANSLATED BYMORRIS HICKY MORGAN, PH.D., LL.D.LATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL PHILOLOGYIN HARVARD UNIVERSITYWITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND ORIGINAL DESIGNSPREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OFHERBERT LANGFORD WARREN, A.M. NELSON ROBINSON JR. PROFESSOR OF ARCHITECTUREIN HARVARD UNIVERSITYCAMBRIDGEHARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESSLONDON: HUMPHREY MILFORDOXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS1914COPYRIGHT, HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS
CONTENTSLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSINDEX
[Page3][4][5][6][7][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][32][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][84][85][86][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125][126][127]
 
[129]
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[321]
[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Ten Books on Architecture, by Vitruvius.file:///H:/My Documents Archive/Architectural Articles/EBooks/20239-...1 of 1585/25/2011 10:46 PM
 
PREFACE
During the last years of his life, Professor Morgan had devoted much time and energy to the preparation of a translation of Vitruvius, which he proposed to supplement with a revised text, illustrations, and notes. Hehad completed the translation, with the exception of the last four chapters of the tenth book, and haddiscussed, with Professor Warren, the illustrations intended for the first six books of the work; the notes hadnot been arranged or completed, though many of them were outlined in the manuscript, or the intention toinsert them indicated. The several books of the translation, so far as it was completed, had been read to alittle group of friends, consisting of Professors Sheldon and Kittredge, and myself, and had received our criticism, which had, at times, been utilized in the revision of the work.After the death of Professor Morgan, in spite of my obvious incompetency from a technical point of view, Iundertook, at the request of his family, to complete the translation, and to see the book through the press. Imust, therefore, assume entire responsibility for the translation of the tenth book, beginning with chapter thirteen, and further responsibility for necessary changes made by me in the earlier part of the translation,changes which, in no case, affect any theory held by Professor Morgan, but which involve mainly theadoption of simpler forms of statement, or the correction of obvious oversights.The text followed is that of Valentine Rose in his second edition (Leipzig, 1899), and the variations fromthis text are, with a few exceptions which are indicated in the footnotes, in the nature of a return to theconsensus of the manuscript readings.The illustrations in the first six books are believed to be substantially in accord with the wishes of Professor Morgan. The suggestions for illustrations in the later books were incomplete, and did not indicate, in allcases, with sufficient definiteness to allow them to be executed, the changes from conventional plans anddesigns intended by the translator. It has, therefore, been decided to include in this part of the work onlythose illustrations which are known to have had the full approval of Professor Morgan. The one exception tothis principle is the reproduction of a rough model of the Ram of Hegetor, constructed by me on the basis of the measurements given by Vitruvius and Athenaeus.It does not seem to me necessary or even advisable to enter into a long discussion as to the date of Vitruvius, which has been assigned to various periods from the time of Augustus to the early centuries of our era. Professor Morgan, in several articles in the
 Harvard Studies in Classical Philology
, and in the
Proceedings of the American Academy
, all of which have been reprinted in a volume of 
 Addresses and  Essays
(New York, 1909), upheld the now generally accepted view that Vitruvius wrote in the time of Augustus, and furnished conclusive evidence that nothing in his language is inconsistent with this view. Inrevising the translation, I met with one bit of evidence for a date before the end of the reign of Nero which Ihave never seen adduced. In viii, 3, 21, the kingdom of Cottius is mentioned, the name depending, it is true,on an emendation, but one which has been universally accepted since it was first proposed in 1513. Thekingdom of Cottius was made into a Roman province by Nero (cf. Suetonius,
 Nero
, 18), and it isinconceivable that any Roman writer subsequently referred to it as a kingdom.It does seem necessary to add a few words about the literary merits of Vitruvius in this treatise, and aboutProfessor Morgan's views as to the general principles to be followed in the translation.Vitruvius was not a great literary personage, ambitious as he was to appear in that character. As Professor Morgan has aptly said, "he has all the marks of one unused to composition, to whom writing is a painfultask." In his hand the measuring-rod was a far mightier implement than the pen. His turgid and pompousrhetoric displays itself in the introductions to the different books, where his exaggerated effort to introducesome semblance of style into his commonplace lectures on the noble principles which should govern theconduct of the architect, or into the prosaic lists of architects and writers on architecture, is everywhereapparent. Even in the more technical portions of his work, a like conscious effort may be detected, and, at thesame time, a lack of confidence in his ability to express himself in unmistakable language. He avoids periodicsentences, uses only the simpler subjunctive constructions, repeats the antecedent in relative clauses, and, notinfrequently, adopts a formal language closely akin to that of specifications and contracts, the style withwhich he was, naturally, most familiar. He ends each book with a brief summary, almost a formula, somewhatlike a sigh of relief, in which the reader unconsciously shares. At times his meaning is ambiguous, not becauseof grammatical faults, which are comparatively few and unimportant, but because, when he does attempt a periodic sentence, he becomes involved, and finds it difficult to extricate himself.Some of these peculiarities and crudities of expression Professor Morgan purposely imitated, because of hisconviction that a translation should not merely reproduce the substance of a book, but should also give asclear a picture as possible of the original, of its author, and of the working of his mind. The translation isintended, then, to be faithful and exact, but it deliberately avoids any attempt to treat the language of Vitruvius as though it were Ciceronian, or to give a false impression of conspicuous literary merit in a work which is destitute of that quality. The translator had, however, the utmost confidence in the sincerity of Vitruvius and in the serious purpose of his treatise on architecture.To those who have liberally given their advice and suggestions in response to requests from Professor Morgan, it is impossible for me to make adequate acknowledgment. Their number is so great, and myknowledge of the indebtedness in individual cases is so small, that each must be content with the thought of 
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Ten Books on Architecture, by Vitruvius.file:///H:/My Documents Archive/Architectural Articles/EBooks/20239-...2 of 1585/25/2011 10:46 PM
 
the full and generous acknowledgment which he would have received had Professor Morgan himself writtenthis preface.Personally I am under the greatest obligations to Professor H. L. Warren, who has freely given bothassistance and criticism; to Professor G. L. Kittredge, who has read with me most of the proof; to the Syndicsof the Harvard University Press, who have made possible the publication of the work; and to the members of the Visiting Committee of the Department of the Classics and the classmates of Professor Morgan, who havegenerously supplied the necessary funds for the illustrations.ALBERT A. HOWARD.
CONTENTS
 BOOK IP
REFACE
3T
HE
E
DUCATION
 
OF
 
THE
A
RCHITECT
5T
HE
F
UNDAMENTAL
P
RINCIPLES
 
OF
A
RCHITECTURE
13T
HE
D
EPARTMENTS
 
OF
A
RCHITECTURE
16T
HE
S
ITE
 
OF
 
A
C
ITY
17T
HE
C
ITY
W
ALLS
21T
HE
D
IRECTIONS
 
OF
 
THE
S
TREETS
;
WITH
EMARKS
 
ON
 
THE
W
INDS
24T
HE
S
ITES
 
FOR 
P
UBLIC
B
UILDINGS
31 BOOK III
 NTRODUCTION
35T
HE
O
RIGIN
 
OF
 
THE
D
WELLING
H
OUSE
38O
 N
 
THE
P
RIMORDIAL
S
UBSTANCE
 
ACCORDING
 
TO
 
THE
P
HYSICISTS
42B
RICK 
42S
AND
44L
IME
45P
OZZOLANA
46S
TONE
49M
ETHODS
 
OF
 
BUILDING
W
ALLS
51T
IMBER 
58H
IGHLAND
 
AND
L
OWLAND
F
IR 
64 BOOK IIII
 NTRODUCTION
69O
 N
S
YMMETRY
:
IN
T
EMPLES
 
AND
 
IN
 
THE
H
UMAN
B
ODY
72C
LASSIFICATION
 
OF
T
EMPLES
75T
HE
P
ROPORTIONS
 
OF
I
 NTERCOLUMNIATIONS
 
AND
 
OF
C
OLUMNS
78T
HE
F
OUNDATIONS
 
AND
S
UBSTRUCTURES
 
OF
T
EMPLES
86P
ROPORTIONS
 
OF
 
THE
B
ASE
, C
APITALS
,
AND
E
 NTABLATURE
 
IN
 
THE
I
ONIC
O
RDER 
90 BOOK IVI
 NTRODUCTION
101T
HE
O
RIGINS
 
OF
 
THE
T
HREE
O
RDERS
,
AND
 
THE
P
ROPORTIONS
 
OF
 
THE
C
ORINTHIAN
C
APITAL
102T
HE
O
RNAMENTS
 
OF
 
THE
O
RDERS
107P
ROPORTIONS
 
OF
D
ORIC
T
EMPLES
109T
HE
C
ELLA
 
AND
P
RONAOS
114H
OW
 
THE
T
EMPLE
 
SHOULD
 
FACE
116T
HE
D
OORWAYS
 
OF
T
EMPLES
117T
USCAN
T
EMPLES
120C
IRCULAR 
T
EMPLES
 
AND
O
THER 
V
ARIETIES
122A
LTARS
125 BOOK VI
 NTRODUCTION
129T
HE
F
ORUM
 
AND
B
ASILICA
131T
HE
T
REASURY
, P
RISON
,
AND
S
ENATE
H
OUSE
137T
HE
T
HEATRE
:
ITS
S
ITE
, F
OUNDATIONS
,
AND
A
COUSTICS
137H
ARMONICS
139S
OUNDING
V
ESSELS
 
IN
 
THE
T
HEATRE
143P
LAN
 
OF
 
THE
T
HEATRE
146G
REEK 
T
HEATRES
151
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Ten Books on Architecture, by Vitruvius.file:///H:/My Documents Archive/Architectural Articles/EBooks/20239-...3 of 1585/25/2011 10:46 PM

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