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India's External Relations

India's External Relations

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Published by Ramita Udayashankar
Politics in India Since Independence, Class XII Political Science
Politics in India Since Independence, Class XII Political Science

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Published by: Ramita Udayashankar on Aug 19, 2011
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India's External Relations1 mark Define the term foreign policy.
A policy pursued by a nation in its dealings with other nations, designed to achievenational objectives.
Which department was established in November 1962?
The Department of Defence Production was established in November 1962.
Which party was floated by Netaji Subash Chandra Bose?
 Netaji created a party named Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj in theyear 1942.
Mention the major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy?
The major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to preserve the hard earnedsovereignty, protect territorial integrity and promote rapid economic development.
Name political parties which wanted India to follow a pro- US foreign policy.
Parties like Bhartiya Jan Sangh, Swatantra party wanted India to follow a pro-US
foreign policy.
When and where was Afro – Asian Conference held?
The Afro – Asian Conference was held in 1955 in the Indonesian city of 
When and where the first summit of 
NAM was held?
The First summit of the NAM was held in Cairo from 5th to 12th June 1961.
Who was the co- founder of 
NAM from India?
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was the co-founder of NAM from India.
What is NAM?
 NAM stands for Non Aligned Movement based on the presumption that existence of 
 power bloc is not conducive to the world peace.
When did China annex Tibet?
China annexed Tibet in the year 1950.
Which treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub khan in 1960?
The India-Pakistan Indus waters Treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub khanin 1960.
2 marksWhat are the five principles of 'Panchsheel'?
Panchsheel is the five principles for peaceful coexistence which were enunciated by
the Prime Minister of India in 1954 as the basis for international cooperation. Theyare:
Mutual respect for each other's Territorial integrity and sovereignty.
 Non aggression
 Non interference in each other's internal affairs.
Equality and mutual benefits.
Peaceful co-existence.
Write a note on Cold war?
Cold war is a state of apparent peace between two powerful countries or blocs, butthey show malice against each other through press, and radio. The term was first used by Bernard M. Maruch while addressing the South Carolina Legislative Body,on April 16, 1947. It is often used to describe the relationship that had existed between the Soviet Union and the western powers since 1947. The break up andweakening of the USSR resulted in virtual end of cold war and has resulted in aunipolar world dominated by the USA.
Mention one cause which strained friendly relations of India with China?
China annexed Tibet in 1950 and this removed a historical buffer between twocountries. Initially the Government of India did not oppose this openly butwhen India had information about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indiangovernment grew uneasy. The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama sought andobtained asylum in India in 1969.
Why did Nehru regard the foreign relations as an essential indicator of dependence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.
 Nehru regarded the conduct of foreign relation as an essential indicator of 
independence because of the following:
He accepted the policy of non-alignment. The main cause to accept the policy of non alignment was regional density of 
India and defence of sovereignty and economicdevelopment.
India did not want to make friendship with one group and to make the adversaryof the other group. The events held in Hungary and Vietnam have more significance
in this context.
Why was there a considerable unease in Indo-US relations during the 1950s?
After independence, India decided not to join either the US blocor USSR bloc. India chose the path of non alignment. While India was trying toconvince the other developing countries about the policy of non-alignment, Pakistan joined the US-led military alliances. The US was not happyabout India's independent initiatives and the policy of non alignment, Therefore therewas a considerable unease in Indo –US relations during the 1950s. The US alsoresented India's growing partnership with the Soviet Union.
Which two areas within Indian Territory have been claimed by China from timeto time?
China has claimed two areas within the Indian Territory from time to time:
Aksai-chin area in the ladakh region of 
Jammu and Kashmir.
Much of the state of Arunachal Pradesh, what was then called NEFA (NorthEastern Frontier Agency)
Why did china allege that the Government of 
India was allowing anti-Chinaactivities?
China annexed Tibet in 1950. The Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama accompaniedthe Chinese Premier during his official visit to India in 1956 and informed Nehruabout the worsening situation in Tibet. After that Dalai Lama sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959.
That’s why china alleged that the government of India was allowing anti-Chinaactivities.
What is the “Initiative of Five”?
The founding fathers of the Non-aligned movement were, apart from Nehru of India,Sukarno of Indonesia and Tito of Yugoslavia, were Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt andKwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five.'
4 marksWrite a short note on the Chinese Revolution of 1949?T
he 1949 Chinese Revolution was a transformative, epochal event, not only for theChinese but for the rest of humanity, as well. On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of 
China. It was a time of revolution, upheaval and bloodshed. The events of that period, and the first decades of communist rule which followed, forged the identity of modern China. Theannouncement ended the costly full-scale civil war between the Chinese CommunistParty (CCP) and the Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang (KMT), which broke outimmediately following World War II and had been preceded by on and off conflict between the two sides since the 1920’s. The creation of the PRC also completed thelong process of governmental upheaval in China begun by the Chinese Revolution of 
1911. The “fall” of mainland China to communism in 1949 led the United States tosuspend diplomatic ties with the PRC for decades.
Who is Dalai Lama?
Dalai Lama is a spiritual teacher of Tibetan Buddhism. His real name is TenzinGyatso and is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. He was born in the year 1935and he is known as "the Dalai Lama", by the western media. He is one of the mostinfluential spiritual leaders of Tibetan Buddhism, and is also Tibet's Head of State and politically influenced. Tenzin Gyatso met the then Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru and requested him to pressurise China to declare Tibet as an autonomousgovernment. At that time India was not having smooth relationship with China.Since Nehru did not want to increase tensions between China and India, he asked theDalai Lama to work on the Seventeen Point Agreement Tibet had with China.
Eventually in 1959, Dalai Lama fled Tibet and set up the government of Tibet inExile in Dharamsala in India and this place is known as Little Lhasa.
Describe Nehru's role with reference to Asian affairs?
 Nehru envisaged a major role for India in the world affairs, especially in Asian affairs.His era was marked by the establishment of contacts between India and other newlyindependent states in Asia and Africa. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, Nehru had been an ardent advocate of Asian unity. Under his leadership, India convened theAsian relations conference in March 1947. India made earnest effort for the earlyrealisation of freedom of 
Indonesia from the Dutch colonial regime by convening aninternational conference in 1949 to support its freedom struggle. The Afro -Asianconference held in the Indonesian city of 
Bandung in 1955 marked the zenithof 
India's engagement with the newly independent Asian and African nations.
6 marksTibet is one of the major issues that historically caused tension between Indiaand China- Explain.
The plateau of the central Asian region called Tibet is one of the major issues thathistorically caused tension between India and China. From time to time inhistory, China had claimed administrative control over Tibet. And from time to

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