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The Etiquette of Completing the Quran

The Etiquette of Completing the Quran

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08/19/2011

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1
وػ   سػوآ    وسو
 
Excerpts from Imām al
-
Nawawī’s
Etiquette with the Quran 
1
 
(Translated from the original Arabic
 Al- 
Tibyān Ādāb Ḥ 
amalat al- 
Qur’ān 
by Musa Furber)
 
The Etiquette of Completing the Quran
 There are several issues concerning completing the recitation of the Quran [
khatma 
].1.
 
 WHEN TO COMPLETE
: The first etiquette concerns its timing. As previously mentioned, itis preferable for someone reciting the Quran on his own to [complete it] during Prayer. Anotheropinion is that it is preferable for it to occur in the two
rak‘as 
of the obligatory Morning Prayer and inthe two sunna
rak‘as 
of the Sunset Prayer, but the two
rak‘as 
of the Morning Prayer are better. Inanother opinion, it is preferable for the completion [
khatma 
] in the beginning of the day for one round[of recitation], and at the end of the day for the next round. When someone completes the recitation outside of Prayer or a group completes whileassembled together, it is recommended it be at the beginning of the day or in the beginning of thenight, as we previously mentioned. According to some scholars, though, the beginning of the day isbetter.2.
 
FASTING THE DAY OF THE
KHATMA 
: It is recommended to fast the very day of the
khatma 
unless it falls on a day in which it is forbidden to fast according to the
Sharī‘a 
.
Ibn Abī Dāwūd
related with his rigorously authenticated chain of narrators that
al
a ibn Mu
arrif,
Ḥabīb ibn Abī Thābit, and al
-
Musayyib ibn Rāfi‘ī—
all well-
known Kūfan Successors (God be well ple
ased withthem)
would awaken fasting on the mornings in which they would complete the Quran.3.
 
 ATTENDING THE
KHATMA 
: It is emphatically recommended to attend gatherings in whichthe
khatma 
takes place. It is established in the rigorously authenticated
hadiths of Bukhārī and Muslim
that the Messenger of God
Ē
ordered women during their menses to go out on Eid to participate inthe goodness and the supplications of the Muslims.
2
 
Dārimī and Ibn Abī Dawūd related with their chains of narration that Ibn ‘Abbās
Ĕ
wouldmake a person watch over someone finishing the Quran, and when he wanted to finish he would
inform Ibn ‘Abbās so he could participate in it.
3
 
1
 
 Adapted with slight modifications from Abū Zakariyyā ibn Sharaf al
-
Nawawī,
Etiquette with the Quran 
, trans. MusaFurber (Chicago: Starlatch Press, 2003), 92
96, 150
154.
2
 
Bukhārī (324, 351, 971, 974, 980–81, 1652), Muslim (890), Abū Dawūd (1136–39), Tirmidhī (539–40), Nasā’ī 
(3:180
81).
 
2
Ibn Abī Dawūd related with two rigorously authenticated chains of narration that Qatāda, the
illustrious Successor and companion of Anas
ē
,
said, ‚When Anas ibn Mālik
ē
would complete [the
Quran+, he would gather his family and supplicate *to God+.‛
 He [also] related with his rigorously authenticated chain of narration that al-
akam ibn
‘Utayba, the illustrious Successor, said, ‚Mujāhid and ‘Abdata ibn Lubāba sent for me and said, ‘We
sent for you because we want to finish the Quran, and the supplication when finishing the Quran is
answered.’‛ In some of the authentic narrations he would say, ‚Indeed, mer
cy descends when
completing the Quran.‛ *And+ he related with his rigorously authenticated chain of narration fromMujāhid that he said, ‚They would gather when completing the Quran, saying that the mercy now descends.‛
 4.
 
THE SUPPLICATION
: It is emphatically desirable to supplicate immediately after a
khatma 
 because of what we have just mentioned
in the previous issue. Dārimī related with his chain of 
transmitters that
umayd al-
 A‘raj said, ‚Whoever recites the Quran and then supplicates, four
thousand angels
say ‘
 Āmīn 
!
’ 
 
to his supplication.‛
4
 One should be persistent in his supplication and ask for important matters. He should[supplicate] much for the well-being of the Muslims, their leadership, and all others who attend totheir affairs. Al-
Ḥākim Abū ‘Abdallāh al
-
Nīsābūrī has related with his chain of narration that when‘Abdallāh ibn al
-
Mubārak
ē
would finish the Quran, he would make a great deal of his supplicationfor the Muslims and believers, male and female. Others have said similar to this.The one supplicating should choose all-encompassing supplications, such as the following (inthe order in which they are recited):
5
 
 ُ ْ   َ  ْ ا ِ ب َر َ  ِ   َ   َ ؼ ْ ا ًا ْ َ  ِا َ  ُ   ُ  َ   َ ؼ  ِ ه ُ ِ َ  ُ   َو، ُ َ  ِ  َ ّُ  ّ ا   َ ْ   َ س َو َ  َ ػ ٍ ّ   َ   ُ  َ  َ ػ َو ِلآ  ٍ ّ   َ   ُ  َ َ  َ ْ  ّ   َ  َ  َ ػ  َ  ِ ا َ ْ  ِإ  َ  َ ػ َو ِلآ  َ  ِ ا َ ْ  ِإ  ِ َ  ِ   َ   َ ؼا َم ّ ه ِإ  ٌ  ِ َ   ِ   َ 
 
 All praise is for God, Lord of the worlds: a praise reaching His bounties and matching His provision.O God! Bless and give peace to Mu
ammad and the followers of Mu
ammad, just as you blessed
Ibrāhīm and the family of Ibrāhīm. And bless Muḥ
ammad and the followers of Mu
ammad, just like
 you blessed Ibrāhīm and the followers of Ibrāhīm; in all of the worlds, indeed You are the
praiseworthy and illustrious.
ّُ  ّ اْح  ِ  ْ  َأ   َ   َ   ُ   ُ ْل ِز َأ  َو  َ   َ   ُ   ُ غ  َ  ّ  َ  َ ث  َو َ ْ   ُ  ِ ّ      َز َوى  َ ْ  ّ    ِْع   َْ ا َو  َ   َ  َْ  َ  ِي  ِة َ  ِ خا َْو ُا َو  َ  ْ  ُزْر َو َم  َ َ غ  َ ط  َ   َ   َ  ْ   َ  ْ  َأ 
 
3
 
Dārimī (3475), see
al-Futu 
ḥāt al 
Rabbāniyya 
(3:243).
4
 
Dārimī (3484), see
al-Futu 
ḥāt 
al- 
Rabbāniyya 
(3:246).
5
 
Not all the supplications found in the original text are included in this document.
 
3
O God! Mend our hearts, remove our faults; assign us the best of outcomes; adorn us withGodfearingness; join for us the best of the first and the last; and sustain us with obeying You as longas You make us remain.
ّُ  ّ ا َْ   َ  ى  َْ  ُ  ْ   ِ     َ ج َو  َ  ْ  ى  َْ  ُ ؼ ْ ا َْ  ِ ػ َأ  َوْ  ِ  ِرو ُ ُ  َ   ِ   ُ  ْ ه َأ  ِت  َ      َ س َو  َ   ِ   َْ  َأ  َْ  ِ ػ َأ  َوْ  ِ  ِبا َ  َ ػ ِر ّ   ا ِبا َ  َ ػ َو ِْ  َ  ْ ا  ِ  َ  ْ   ِ  َو  َ  ْ   َ  ْ ا ِت  َ   َ  ْ ا َو ِ  َ  ْ   ِ  َو ِح  ِ   َ  ْ ا ِل ّ ّا
 
O God! Make easy what is easy for us; avert us from difficulty; protect us from the torture of theHellfire and the torture of the grave, and the trials of life and death, and the trials of the falsemessiah.
ّُ  ّ اّ ِإ  َ ُ َ ْ   َ ى  َُ  ْ ا  َ     ا َو َف  َ   َ ؼ ْ ا َو َ  ِ  ْ ا َو
 
O God! We ask You for guidance, protection, virtue, and affluence.
ّُ  ّ اّ ِإ  ِدْ  َ  ْ   َ  ُ ػ َم   َ   َ ه َ ْد َأ   َ   َ ها َ ْ  َأ  َو َ  ِ ثا َ  َ خ  َو  َ   ِ   َْ  َأ   َ   َ   ُ  ْ ه َأ  َو  َ     ِ ْ  َأ  َو  َ   َ   َ  ْ  َأ  َو َ  ِ   َ س َو َ  ِ   ِ  ْ   ُ  ْ ا َو َع  ِ َ   َ  َ ْ   َ ؼ ْ ه َأ  ِ  ِ   َ  ْ   َ   َ ػْ  ِْ   َ   َ ػ َوْ  ِ  ِر  ُ  ُأ  ِة َ  ِ خا  َ  ْ ها َو
 
O God! We entrust You with our religion and bodies, with the finality of our deeds and lives
forour families, our loved ones, and all of the Muslims
and all matters of the next life and this one that You bestowed upon us and upon them.
ّُ  ّ اّ ِإ  َ ُ َ ْ   َ  َ ْ   َ ؼ ْ ا ِ  َ   ِ   َ ؼ ْ ا َو ِ ِ  ا  َ  ْ ها َو ِة َ  ِ خ ْ ا َوْع   َْ ا َو  َ   َ  ْ   َ  َْ  َ  َو  َ ِ   َ  ْ  َأ  ِ ِرا َد َم  ِ   َ ا َ  َ   َ ِ ْ   َ   ِ  َم  ِ   َْ  َر َو
 
O God! We ask You for pardon and well-being in religion and in this life and the next. And to uniteus together with our loved ones in the abode of Your generosity with Your favour and mercy.
ّُ  ّ  َاْح  ِ  ْ  َأ  َلا َ ْ  َأ  َ  ِ   ِ  ْ   ُ  ْ اْص  ِ خ ْر َأ  َوْ ُ َر  َ ؼ ْ ش َأ  ُْ   ِ آ  َوْ  ِْ  ِ ِ   َ طْو َأ  ِض ْ ا َو ُ َ   ُ   ُدْ  ِف  َ ػ َوْ ُ  َ ْ  َ ْ ُ ْ ها َوْُ   َ ش  ُ   ُ ج ْ   َ س َوْ  ُ َ  ّ   َ ّم  ُ  َوْ ُا َْ َأ  ِ ْ شا َوْ ُ َرو ُ  ُ ْ  ِ ْذ َأ  َو َظ ْ   َ ْ  ِ ِ   ُ   ُ ْ    َأ  َوْ  ُ َ  ْ   َ ْ  َ ؼ ْ جا َو ِ ِ  ِ ِ   ُ   ُ  َن  َ   ِْا َ  َْ   ِ  ْ ا َو ْ  ُْ      َ   َو َ  َ ػ ِّ  ِ  َِ  ُ س َرّ  َ  ُ ِ ْ   َ   َ ػْّ  َ س َوْُ  ْ غ ِزْو َأ  َوْن َأ ا  ُ   ُ   َك ِْ   َ ؼ  ِ ي  ِّاْ  ُّ   َ   َ ػ ِ ْ   َ   َ ػْ ُْ ُ ْ ها َو َ  َ ػ َك و ُ  َ ػ ْ ِ و ُ  َ ػ َو َ ٰ ِإ  ق  َ  ْ ا  َ  ْ   َ ؼ ْ جا َوْ  ُْ   ِ 
 
O God! Mend the conditions of the Muslims, reduce the cost of living, and give them safety in theirlands. Settle their loans, heal their sick, and give victory to their armies. Bring forth their missingpersons, and release their prisoners of war. Heal their breasts, remove rage from their hearts, andunite them. Put belief and wisdom in their hearts and make them firm on the creed of YourMessenger
Ē
. Inspire them to fulfill Your covenant that You made with them. Give them victory over Your enemies and their enemies, O God of Truth. Make us among them.

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