The epidemiological andexperimental evidence on health determinants haveled to numerous initiatives to develop nationalstrategy for health promotion through diet and physical activity in Republic of Macedonia. TheWHO HEPA (Health-Enhancing Physical Activity)Europe focused on developing a national strategy todevelop health by publishing European physicalactivity recommendations. Also, the WHO adoptedthe Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity andHealth in 2004 (WHA, 2004) in order to reducemortality from chronic noncommunicable diseases(NCD). An implementing act on European HealthInformation System (EHIS) is expected to comeinto force in 2014 as a useful tool for determining priorities in health policy.
With the aim
to develop a national strategy for health promotion and NCD prevention, we havemade analysis and evaluation of the results obtainedfrom the new “cross-sectional” study for dietaryhabits and physical activity levels (PALs)monitoring conducted in May 2011.
The survey was comprised of a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary habits weremonitored by using the questionnaire to examinethe frequency of consumption of various foodsduring the week (“Food frequency questionnaire”,FFQ). Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) wasthe preferred measure in the study because thecategories include a comprehensive list of examplesof organized sport, brisk walking and cycling withmoderate intensity as well as walking, householdduties, gardening and other activities recognized as physical activity with low intensity level. The studywas conducted in five regions in the republic of Macedonia. The total sample was 800 participantsaged 10 to 65 years, divided into three age groups.The results were presented in percentages (%) of total numbers of the participants in the study by ageand sex groups.
: Results showed that 20% of the populationconsumed bread enriched with whole grainespecially participants over 50 years old.Approximately 74% of the population regularlyconsumed vegetables and fruits of which over 50%every day. 19% of the participants consumed fish inaccordance with the recommendation. 34% of all participants prepared boiled food while 66% of study participants older than 50 years old preparedfried foods, including fast food. 11% of all participants bought food based on health effects. Amain factor was usually the taste and food price.59% of Macedonian children and adolescentyounger than 19 years and 28% of participants,from 19 to 49 years have moderate or vigorous physical activity level such as organized sports.28% of young people had low levels physicalactivity, especially girls. Also, half of adult participants in the study had low physical activitylevel. In term of gender differences, 18% men and26% women of all participants were physicalinactive, of which 35% were adults older than 50years.
It’s known that mortality from NCDscan be prevented by changes in behavioural risk factors associated with lifestyle of the population, primary through the reduction of unhealthy eatinghabits and decreased physical activity. The firstcomplex results of our study indicate that the actionfor health through improving physical activitylevels and dietary habits should be focused onyounger age groups, especially girls and adult population over 50 years, particularly women.Concerning the changes in dietary habits, the mostimportant is radical change in the food market andchanges in food production including availability of whole grain bread, fresh fish and eliminating “fastfood.”
: health promotion strategy, prevention, dietary habit, physical activity level,noncommunicable disease, lifestyle intervention.
Significant fundamental conditions andresources to improve population health are nutritioneducation, then finance and stable eco-system under the "Declaration on the promotion of health" of theWorld Health Organization (Ottawa declaration,WHO, 1986). The WHO HEPA (Health-EnhancingPhysical Activity) European network is focused ondeveloping a national strategy and program by publishing European physical activityrecommendations. Also, the WHO adopted the”Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity andHealth in” (WHA, 2004) in order to reducenoncommunicable diseases (NCD) mortality. Animplementing act on European Health InformationSystem (EHIS) is expected to come into force in2014 as a useful tool for determining priorities inhealth policy (1).The epidemiological and experimental evidenceon health determinants have led to numerousinitiatives to develop national strategy for health promotion through diet and physical activity inRepublic of Macedonia. Numerous studies andexperiences have confirmed the role of nutritionand physical activity in preventing main NCD suchas cardiovascular diseases (2), type 2 diabetes,cancer, obesity and co-morbidities. NCD areincluded in category of nutrition-related diseasesand represent the enormous public health problem.The presence of total NCD mortality was 75%,while cardiovascular disease morbidity, accordingto the State Institute for Statistic of Republic of Macedonia amounted to 57% of the total morbidity