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Table Of Contents

1.2.2. Definition
1.2.3. Mathematical Relationship Between the pdf and cdf
1.2.4. Mean Life (MTTF)
1.2.5. Median Life
1.2.6. Modal Life
1.3. Statistical Distributions used in Reliability Analysis
1.3.1. Exponential Distribution
1.3.2. The Normal Distribution
1.3.3. The Log-Normal Distribution
1.3.4. The Weibull Distribution
2.1. Introduction
2.1.1. Burn-In Definitions
2.1.2. The Differences between Burn-In and Environmental Stress Screening (ESS)
2.2. Burn-In Methods and Their Effectiveness
2.2.1. Static Burn-In
2.2.2. Dynamic Burn-in
2.2.3. Test During Burn-In
2.2.4. High-Voltage Stress Tests
2.3. Burn-In Documents
2.4. Burn-In Test Conditions Specified By MIL-STD-883C
2.5. Test Temperature
2.6. Reliability after Burn-In
2.6.1. Residual MTTF
2.7. A Physics of Failure Approach to IC Burn-In
2.7.1. Burn-In Philosophy
2.7.2. Problem with Present Approach to Burn-In
2.7.3. A Physics- Of – Failure Approach to Burn –In
2.7.3.1. Understanding Steady –State Temperature Effects
2.7.3.2. Setting up the Burn-in Profile
3. Reliability Evaluation Using Databooks
3.1. MIL-HDBK-217 vs. HALT/HASS
3.1.1. The Purpose of MIL-HDBK-217
3.1.2. The Merit of HALT/HASS
3.1.3. Why MIL-HDBK-217 Turns Out Inaccurate Predictions
3.1.4. Conclusion
3.1.5. References
3.2. A New System-Reliability Assessment Methodology
3.2.1. Abstract
3.2.2. Background
3.2.2.1. Need for the Model
3.2.2.2. Uses for Reliability Predictions
3.2.2.3. Methodologies Used In Performing Predictions
3.2.3. The Basis for a New Model
3.2.3.1. Uncertainty in Traditional Approach Estimates
3.2.3.2. System Failure Causes
3.2.3.3. Model Description
3.2.3.4. Initial Assessment
3.2.3.5. Process Grading
3.2.3.6. Adding Software Failure Rate
3.2.3.7. Adding Failure Rate Due to Wearout Modes
3.2.3.8. Logistic Failure Rate Contributions
3.2.3.9. Adding Empirical Data
3.2.4. Future Plans
3.2.5. References
4. Reliability Design Improvement Methods
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Derating
4.2.1. Importance of Derating
4.2.2. Effect of Derating On Part Stress Reliability Prediction
4.2.3. Method of Derating
4.3. Redundancy
4.3.1. Active Parallel Redundancy
4.3.2. Standby Redundancy
4.3.3. K-out-of-M Redundancy
4.4. Stress Reduction
4.4.1.1. Reliability Growth Testing
4.4.2. Duane Model
4.5. Cumulative MTBF
4.5.1. Alternate Duane Plot
4.5.2. Limitations
5. Cost Analysis
5.1. Life Cycle Cost Analysis
5.1.1. The Economics of Reliability and Maintainability and System Design
5.1.2. Life-Cycle Cost Model
5.2. Warranty Cost Analysis
6. Accelerated Life Testing Data Analysis
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Data and Data Types
6.2.1. Complete Data
6.2.2. Censored Data
6.2.2.1. Censored Type I Data
6.2.2.2. Censored Type II Data
6.2.2.3. Multi-censored Data
6.3. Stress Types and Stress Levels
6.4. Life-Stress relationships
6.5. Analyzing Data from Accelerated Life Tests
6.6. How do you fit an acceleration model?
6.6.1. Graphical Method
6.6.1.1. Life Distribution Parameters at Each Stress Level
6.6.1.2. Life Distribution Probability Plotting
6.6.1.3. Determining the X and Y Position of the Plot Points
6.6.1.4. Median Ranks
6.6.1.5. Some Shortfalls of Manual Probability Plotting
6.6.1.6. Life-Stress Relationship Plotting
6.6.1.7. How to fit an Arrhenius Model with Graphical Estimation
6.6.1.8. Comments on the Graphical Method
6.6.2. MLE (Maximum Likelihood) Parameter Estimation
6.6.2.1. Background Theory
6.6.2.2. Illustrating the MLE Method Using the Exponential Distribution
6.6.2.3. Illustrating the MLE Method Using the Normal Distribution
6.6.2.4. Estimator
6.6.2.5. Unbiased Estimator
6.6.3. Conclusions
6.7. Calculated Results and Plots
6.8.1.3. Electronic Devices Example
7. Highly Accelerated Testing
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Why Things Fail?
7.2.1. The Bathtub Curve
7.3. The Purposes of HALT and HASS
7.4. Equipments Required
7.5. Some General Comments on HALT and HASS
8. Accelerated Life Testing Concepts and Models
8.1. Test Purpose
8.1.1. On Materials
8.1.2. On Products
8.2. Types of Acceleration and Stress Loading
8.2.1. Overstress Testing
8.2.1.1. About Degradation Mechanisms
8.2.1.2. Stresses and Stress Levels
8.2.1.3. Stress Loading
8.3. Types of Accelerated Test Data
8.4. Analysis Method
8.4.1. Life-Stress Models
8.4.2. Statistics Based Models
8.4.2.1. Exponential Distribution Acceleration Model
8.4.2.2. Weibull Distribution Acceleration Model
8.4.3. Physics Statistics Based Models
8.4.3.1. The Arrhenius Model
8.4.3.2. The Eyring Model
8.4.3.3. The Inverse Power Rule Model
8.4.3.4. Combination Model
8.4.4. Physics Experimental Based Models
8.4.4.1. Electromigration Model
8.4.4.2. Humidity Dependence Failures
8.4.4.3. Temperature-Humidity Relationship
8.4.4.4. Fatigue Failures
8.4.5. Degradation Models
8.4.5.1. Resistor Degradation Model
9. Repairable System Analysis
9.1. Availability and Maintainability Measures
9.1.1. Contributions to unavailability
9.2. Availability
9.3. RS Models and Availability
9.3.1. Renewal models
9.3.1.1. System Structure and Assumptions
9.3.1.2. General Results
9.3.1.3. Special Case
9.3.1.4. System Availability
9.3.2. Minimal Repair Models
9.3.2.1. System Structure and Assumptions
9.3.2.2. General Results
9.3.3. CTMC Models
9.3.3.1. Single Machine Problems
9.3.3.2. Multiple Machine Problems
9.4. Maintainability
9.4.1. Maintainability Impact on Availability
9.4.2. Maintainability Measures
9.4.2.1. Probability of Task Completion(PTC)
9.4.2.2. Mean Duration of Maintenance Task (MDMT)
9.4.2.3. Percentage Duration of Maintenance Task(DMTp)
9.4.2.4. Variability of Duration of Maintenance Task (CV(DMT))
9.4.2.5. Success of Task Completion (STC)
9.4.2.6. Maintenance Personnel Demand per Maintenance Task (MMPD)
9.4.3. Item Based Statistics
9.4.3.1. Mean Time in Maintenance (MTIM)
9.4.3.2. Mean Time to Restore (MTTR)
9.4.3.3. Maintenance Hours per Operational Unit (MHOU)
9.4.4. System Based Statistics
9.4.5. Other Areas of Maintainability Engineering
9.5. Maintenance and Optimization
1. Reactive maintenance
9.5.1. Reactive Maintenance
9.5.2. Predictive Maintenance
• Replacement Decisions
9.5.3. Replacement Decision
9.5.4. Inspection Decisions (Inspection Models)
9.5.4.1. Optimal inspection frequency: Maximization of profit
9.5.4.2. Optimal inspection frequency: Minimization of downtime
10. Software Reliability Concepts
10.1. Terminologies
10.2. Overview of Software Reliability
10.2.1. Errors, Faults and Failures
10.2.2. Software failure mechanisms
10.3. Software Reliability Metrics
10.1. Measurements to assess Reliability
10.2. Complimentary strategies to achieve Reliability
10.2.1. Fault Avoidance
10.2.2. Fault Tolerance
10.3. Error Categories
10.3.1. Design errors
10.3.2. Coding Errors
10.3.3. Clerical Errors
10.3.4. Debugging errors
10.3.5. Testing errors
10.4. Failure Classification
10.5. Data Collection
10.5.1. Data collection procedure
10.6. Failure Count Data vs. Execution Time Data
10.6.1. Failure-Count Data
10.6.2. Execution Time Data
10.6.3. Transformations between the Two Types of Input
10.7. Software Reliability Engineering
10.7.1. What It Is and Why It Works
10.7.2. A Proven, Standard, Widespread Best Practice
10.8. Software Reliability Measurements
10.8.1. Software reliability estimation
10.8.2. Software reliability prediction
10.9. Type of Tests in SRE
10.9.1. Reliability growth test
10.9.2. Certification test
10.10. Software Reliability Engineered Testing
10.10.1. Definitions
10.10.2. SRET Steps
10.11. SRE Process and Fone Follower Example
10.11.1. Define the Product
10.11.2. Implement Operational Profiles
10.11.3. Define “Just Right” Reliability
10.11.4. Prepare For Test
10.11.5. Execute Test
10.11.6. Guide Test
10.11.7. Collect Field Data
10.12. Conclusion
11. Software Testing
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Key Concepts
11.2.1. Correctness Testing
11.2.2. Performance testing
11.2.3. Reliability testing
11.2.4. Security testing
11.3. Testing Automation
11.4. When to Stop Testing?
11.5. Alternatives to Testing
11.6. Verification/Validation/Certification
11.6.1. Verification Techniques
11.6.2. Validation Techniques
11.7. Certification Process
11.8. Test Planning
11.9. Statistical Testing
11.10. Defect Testing
11.11. Stages in Testing Process
11.11.1. Unit Testing
11.11.2. Module Testing
11.11.3. Sub-System Testing
11.11.4. System Testing
11.11.5. Acceptance Testing
11.11.6. Beta Testing
11.12. Comparative Review of Testing Strategies
11.12.1. Top Down Testing
11.12.2. Bottom Up Testing
11.12.3. Thread Testing
11.12.4. Stress Testing
11.12.5. Back-to-Back Testing
11.13. Comparative Review of Defect Testing Approaches
11.13.1. Functional or Black-box testing
11.13.2. Structural or White-box testing
11.13.3. Interface Testing
11.14. Conclusions
12. Field Data Analysis
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Data Collection Principles
12.2.1. Study Plans, Goals and Input Variables
12.2.2. Failures, Faults, and Related Data
12.2.3. Time
12.2.4. Usage
12.2.5. Data Granularity
12.3.1. Plots and Graphs
12.3.2. Data Modeling and Diagnostics
12.4. Important Topics in Analysis of Field Data
12.4.1. Calendar Time
12.4.2. Usage Time
12.4.3. An Example
12.5. Calendar-Time Reliability Analysis
12.6. Usage-Based Reliability Analysis
12.7. Special Events
12.8.5. Summary
13. Standards and Handbooks
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39657242 19065653 Reliability for Begineers

39657242 19065653 Reliability for Begineers

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Published by: taner56 on Aug 20, 2011
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