It is important to note that after the millennium, church building, especially inItaly and France began to see itself in a new light. The beginning of the eleventh centurycan be thought of as a pre-renaissance. Anglo Saxon building dominated this time periodinitially, but the Norman Romanesque was introduced gradually. In the twelfth century, atransition from the Norman Romanesque to the Early English Gothic was experienced. Inthe thirteenth century, there was a transition to the Decorated Style. The Fourteenthcentury transitioned from the Decorated to the Perpendicular style, according to Parker.
European Revival:Romanesque and Gothic
According to Jotischky and Hull, the term
was formed in the 19
century as defining Norman Artistic and Architectural misinterpretations following the breakdown of the Carolingian empire, and Gothic architecture was begun in the Ile-de-France. Jotischky and Hull explain that Gothic architecture utilized minimal structure andmaximum glazing, Rayonnant Parisian Gothic emphasized light and decoration, and theFlamboyant style was most concerned with surface decoration. Finally, the perpendicular style utilized flattened grids of rectilinear tracery (
Intellect and Universities
Jotischky and Hull write that secular schools were formed in the last quarter of the12
century, receiving initial support from secular rulers as way of separating ‘church andstate’. Theology was taught in Paris, and Law was taught in Bologna. Curricular modelssuch as the Trivium, consisting of Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic, and the Quadrivium,consisting of Arithmetic, Geometry, Harmonics, and Astronomy were employedincreasingly (
). According to a Diagram of Medieval Academic development,Universities were established in Oxford, Cambridge, Lisbon, Coimbra, Seville,Salamanca, Palencia, Lerida, Toulouse, Montpellier, Angers, Paris, Salerno, Naples,Siena, Arezzo, Bologna, Reggio, Piacenza, Vercelli, Vicenza, and Padua prior to 1300(
The Medieval Economy increased steadily in cities throughout Europe. By 1300,many cities with a population over 10,000 existed around Northern France, and NorthernItaly. In addition, these zones, as well as the southern Coasts of England were areas of considerable textile manufacturing. Other less populated areas such as northern Poland,Rouen, Eastern Bulgaria, and Palestine were strong in grain production. It is interestingthat wine was exported mostly from western France (Bordeaux Proximity), Lyon, andFrankfurt, but not so much from Italy during this time.
Civil / Military Construction
Viollet-Le-Duc writes that ninth, tenth, and eleventh century “conflagrations”destroying wood towns and villages were some of the main propagators of stone use in“private dwellings as well as churches.” (
) In addition, Viollet-Le-Duc mentions thatmortar used by the military was superior to that of the church builders, and that themedieval age generally ignored the use of symmetry, at least with respect to non-religiousconstructions. Through depiction of images, and drawings, Viollet-Le-Duc clarifies that