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IGCSE Chemistry Notes

IGCSE Chemistry Notes

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05/03/2014

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IGCSECompleteChemistryNotes
By: Abdulla Al Zaabi
 Refined and cleared by KmQ! :D
 
Unit 1:
States of matter 
 
Everything is made of particles. Particles in solid are not free to move around. Liquidsand gases can. As particles move they collide with each other and bounce off in alldirections. This is called random motion.In 2 substances, when mixed, particles bounce off in all directions when they collide.This mixing process is called diffusion. It¶s also the movement of particles without aforce.The smallest particle that cannot be broken down by chemical means is called an atom.·In some substances, particles are just single atoms. For example the gas argon, foundin air, is made up of single argon atoms.·In many substances, particles consist of 2 atoms joined together. These are calledmolecules.·In other substances, particles consist of atoms or groups of atoms that carry a charge.These particles are called ions.
Solids liquids and gases
Solid Properties:
 
y
Definite shape and volume
y
Normally hard and rigid
y
Large force required to change shape
y
High Density
y
IncompressibleModel:
y
Closely packed
y
Occupy minimum space
y
Regular pattern
y
Vibrate in fixed position
y
Not free to move
Liquid Properties
:
y
Definite volume but no shape.
y
High Density
y
Not compressibleModel:
y
Occur in clusters with molecules slightly further apart compared to solids
y
Free to move about within a confined vessel
 
Ga
s
 
Properties:
y
No Fixed volume and no fixed shape
y
Low density
y
CompressibleModel:
y
Very far apart
y
Travel at high speed
y
Independent and random motions
y
Negligible forces of attraction between them
D
iffusion in
Ga
ses
Gases diffuse in different rates. Those rates depend on their factors:
1. M
a
ss of the p
a
rticles
 The lower the mass of its particles the faster a gas will diffuse.Why?Because the lighter the molecules...the faster it will travel (obviously...)
2. The temper 
a
ture
The higher the temperature, the faster a gas will diffuse.Why?Because particles gain energy as they are heated
 
Mixtures, Solutions,
a
nd Solvents
Mixture
: Contains more the one substance. They are just mixed together and notchemically combined.Example: Sand and water.
Solution
: It is when a solute and a solvent mix. The solute dissolves in the solventmaking a solution.Example: sugar (solute) dissolves in water (solvent) making a solution of sugar and water.The solubility of every substance is different.To help a solute dissolve you could:
y
Stir it
y
Rise the temperatureIf you add excess amount of sugar in a small amount of water...it won¶t dissolve as thereis no space for it. The solution becomes saturated.
Solvent
: A substance that allows solutes to dissolve inExample: Water, Ethanol

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