under the assumption that the solution behavesideally:
) = T
. + ln(X
) + (1-X
/2 + …) RT
is the freezing point of compound A, and is alsoshown in Figure 2. dH
is the heat of fusion for compound A and X
is the mole fraction of compound A. An analogous equation can be writtenfor compound B. The two liquidus curves intersect atthe eutectic point, C.In the absence of a phase change, the rate of changein temperature follows Newton’s Law of cooling. The Newton’s Law of cooling predicts that there is anexponential approach to the ambient temperature. Asolid is formed because the rate of cooling is changedas part of the heat exchanged with the surroundingsthat contributes to the phase transition. During thefreezing point of a pure substance, when thetemperature remains constant, this is called thermalarrest. In a two-component system, as the temperatureis lowered, one component begins to freeze while theother component still remains in the liquid state. Inthis freezing process, the liquid’s concentrationmixture changes as more and more solid forms, andthis consequently changes the freezing point. For thisreason, the rate of cooling is not constant, but isdifferent from the rate of cooling of the originalliquid. This change in the rate of cooling is known asthermal break. When the liquid reaches a certain ratioof the two components, a thermal arrest is observed.This temperature and concentration point is alsoknown as the eutectic point.
. The binary system will benaphthalene-diphenylamine. Make two series of runs:a Naphthalene-rich series beginning with pure Naphthalene followed by successive additions of Diphenylamine to the previous run; and aDiphenylamine-rich series similarly prepared with the Naphthalene-rich series*. Heat the mixture in water bath until completely melted, and then, remove thewater bath and measure the temperature periodically(e.g. every 15 seconds for the first 5 minutes, 30seconds for the next five minutes, and every minutefor the latter parts until the eutectic temperature isreached) until the system is essentially solid.
Approximate range of composition for thetwo-component Naphthalene-Diphenylamine mixture
Approximate Range of Composition
Pure A - Naphthalene: 10 g.Pure B -Diphenylamine: 10 g.
RunB (g)Wt. % ARunA (g)Wt. % B
The constructed phase diagram with the freezing points plotted, temperature (y-axis) and mole fraction of Naphthalene (x-axis). The best fitted curveis used and the eutectic point and temperature weredetermined.
Eutectic composition (X
Eutectic temperature (T
In the constructed phase diagram, a fewchanges were made. The best fitted curve was used inorder to get the eutectic point. The experimental value