High cholesterol levels cause the coronary arteries to narrow due to accumulation of plaque on the wallsof the arteries. The arteries are also completely blocked due to high level of cholesterol. Cholesterol-richfood increases the level of bad cholesterol or
low density lipoprotein (LDL)
, which is deposited on theartery walls which leads to atherosclerosis. These LDL molecules contain more cholesterol and does notaid in the transportation of cholesterol out of the body, instead it deposits cholesterol onto the vesselwalls.
High density lipoprotein (HDL)
or good cholesterol plays a vital role in removing cholesterol out of the body by transporting it to the liver. Low HDL levels can lead to severe cardiovascular disorder.
oking and Alcohol
Several studies have indicated that high consumption of alcohol is one of the major causes of coronaryheart disease as it can raise blood pressure. Smoking increases the risk of coronary heart disease by70%. It also increases the risk of sudden death due to coronary heart disease. Carbon monoxidecontained in the smoke can clump the platelets in the blood, which makes the blood sticky and thusblock coronary arteries. The chances of having a severe heart attack due to CHD are seen quite oftenamong habitual smokers.
Stress, whether physical or emotional, increases the hearts workload, making it beat faster thannormal, raising blood pressure. All this results in the heart needing more oxygen and if the coronaryarteries are blocked, this request cannot be met, leading to Angina pectoris or a heart attack.
Coronary heart disease risk factors:
Coronary artery disease compromises the pumping ability of the heart, cause failure of the valve orresult in narrowing or hardening of the arteries. The injury or failure of the cardiovascular system willaffect the peripheral tissues that depend on the delivery of nutrients
and the removal of wastes throughthe blood vascular system. Some of the major risk factors affecting coronary heart disease are describedbelow:
Non controllable risk factors
Aging causes the coronary arteries to become stiff and hard if proper diet or lifestyle is not maintained.Generally people above 65 yrs are mostly affected by coronary artery disease. Old age is one of themajor risk factors which facilitate easy accumulation of plaque on the walls of the arteries, which makeit hard and narrow.