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Class XII - Introductory Microeconomics

Class XII - Introductory Microeconomics

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Published by Mantra
Latest NCERT Class XII - Introductory Microeconomics, with all chapters combined into one document unlike the chapter wise downloading at the official NCERT website.
Latest NCERT Class XII - Introductory Microeconomics, with all chapters combined into one document unlike the chapter wise downloading at the official NCERT website.

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Published by: Mantra on Sep 29, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/06/2014

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Contents
Foreword
iii 
 
viii 
 
Chapter 1
 Introduction Introduction Introduction Introduction Introduction
1.1 A S
IMPLE
E
CONOMY 
 Think of any society. People in the society need many goods andservices
1
in their everyday life including food, clothing, shelter,transport facilities like roads and railways, postal services and various other services like that of teachers and doctors. In fact, thelist of goods and services that any individual
2
needs is so large that no individual in society, to begin with, has all the things she needs.Every individual has some amount of only a few of the goods andservices that she would like to use. A family farm may own a plot of land, some grains, farming implements, maybe a pair of bullocksand also the labour services of the family members. A weaver may have some yarn, some cotton and other instruments required for  weaving cloth. The teacher in the local school has the skills requiredto impart education to the students. Some others in society may not have any resource
3
excepting their own labour services. Each of these decision making units can produce some goods or services by using the resources that it has and use part of the produce toobtain the many other goods and services which it needs. For example, the family farm can produce corn, use part of the producefor consumption purposes and procure clothing, housing and various services in exchange for the rest of the produce. Similarly,the weaver can get the goods and services that she wants in exchangefor the cloth she produces in her yarn. The teacher can earn somemoney by teaching students in the school and use the money for obtaining the goods and services that she wants. The labourer alsocan try to fulfill her needs by using whatever money she can earn by  working for someone else. Each individual can thus use her resources to fulfill her needs. It goes without saying that noindividual has unlimited resources compared to her needs. Theamount of corn that the family farm can produce is limited by theamount of resources it has, and hence, the amount of different goods
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Goods means physical, tangible objects used to satisfy people’s wants and needs. The term‘goods’ should be contrasted with the term ‘services’, which captures the intangible satisfaction of  wants and needs. As compared to food items and clothes, which are examples of goods, we canthink of the tasks that doctors and teachers perform for us as examples of services.
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By individual, we mean an individual decision making unit. A decision making unit can be a single person or a group like a household, a firm or any other organisation.
3
By resource, we mean those goods and services which are used to produce other goods andservices, e.g. land, labour, tools and machinery, etc.

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