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Virtual Education

Virtual Education

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Published by Neeta Pandey

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Published by: Neeta Pandey on Aug 24, 2011
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10/23/2012

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VIRTUAL EDUCATION AND THE RACE TO THE BOTTOM
Dr. Parth Sarathi PandeyMrs. Neeta PandeyLecturer,Lecturer,Anand College of Education,Anand College of Education,AgraAgra
Email Id- neetaparthsarathi@gmail.com
 Abstract 
Without doubt, the most radical changes in the history of higher education have comeabout through technology. Certainly the huge universities and giant enrollments that began in the 1950’s and 1960’s could not have happened without the advent of all thetechnology that makes possible a university larger than many small cities. By the earlytwenty first century, though, there was a new kind of higher education emerging, oneagain brought about by technological change, but representing a total, revolutionary shift in the nature of higher education. This new in the nature and quality of higher education. Despite the tremendous changes in higher education made possible by technologyin the latter third of the twentieth century, for the most part the university at coreretained much of its traditional structure, during the period. Admittedly, this period sawthe phenomenal growth of huge state and regional universities, the development of classes of more than 500 students at a time ( made possible by computer-scanned testsand machinesThat track attendance with the swipe of a student’s identification card), burgeoning technical and business degree programs, and much else. Truth be told, the basic structure – a professor in a room with twenty or thirty students – continued from the past. Videotaped courses and the like were mostly failures: for the most part, the giveand take of the classroom was essentially different in 1999 from1899. But this ageless social structure of the classroom was to change radically withthe advent of VIRTUAL EDUCATION.
Virtual education
refers to instruction in a learning environment where teacher andstudent are separated by time or space, or both, and the teacher provides course contentthrough course management applications, multimediaresources, theInternet, videoconferencing,etc. Students receive the content and communicate with the teacher via the same technologies.There is no lack of speculation and theorization on the current and future roles of virtualschools. However, when one looks at virtual schools through the prism of the role of calendars–the chronological superstructure of schools–a different, rather less theoretical
 
 picture emerges. Many e-learning institutions call themselves virtual schools, but there isa continuum from “bricks-andmortar” schools with elements of virtual schooling, to truevirtual schools where all educational teaching and learning occurs in the virtualenvironment. At this time, more tend to have elements of virtual schooling than to be truevirtual schools. Because of this situation, we will mainly refer to virtual schooling exceptfor those situations where a true virtual school is in view. Much of the discussion of virtual schooling is ahistorical: From documents extolling virtual schools one wouldthink virtual schooling dates from the widespread growth of personal computers and theWorld Wide Web in the mid- 1980s, whereas much of the structure is directly attributableto distance education which has existed for nearly two centuries.Virtual Education is designed for future applications of virtual reality technology to thefield of distance education. Virtual reality is being used for several education uses. Twoof the most prominent uses are: advanced simulation training; and virtual education asdistance instruction programs evolve with more higher-order VR applied science. Virtualreality is, even now, being used to train physicians, aircraft pilots, soldiers, and people inother professions. With respect to distance education, the virtual education revolution is,even now, underway. Distance instruction that started with basic text and imageexchange, is evolving into educational programs that involve the human brain multi-dimensionally and interactively through several senses. While three-dimensional(holographic) virtual instructors do not currently lecture around the globe, this mayhappen some day in the not-so-distant future. For unique material, please see three-dimensional data analysis .Virtual reality can also help physicians to discern the borders of diseased tissue andextract it from healthy tissue nearby. VR-guided medibots enable microsurgical procedures on a much tinyer scale and with more accuracy than is possible withtraditional surgical operations. Macro scale motion by the robotic controls by a surgeon istranslated down to micro movements of the robotic elements within the patient. virtualreality and telerobotics discusses further information.
History of virtual learning environments
The use of VLEs, while not as extensive as in Europe and the U.S.A., is increasing in this part of the world. There is a rapid uptake of communications technologies in the tertiarysector of education but it is uneven and not without criticism (Brabazon, 2003). Watchingdevelopments elsewhere from this perspective on the edge of the world’s stage it isdifficult not to conclude that technological developments in education are driven by acomplex set of forces that include not only the enabling factor of the convergence of thetechnologies but also the economics of globalization and the politics of techno-capitalism. There is a case to be made that the arrival of the virtual classroom whilstcreating a paradigm shift in the ways teaching and learning are delivered also presents arange of opportunities and threats for both the teacher and the learner and offerssignificant and particular challenges for small local tertiary institutions in small countries.1728 : March 20, Boston Gazette contains an advertisement from Caleb Phillipps,2
 
"Teacher of the New Method of Short Hand," advising that any "Persons in theCountry desirous to Learn this Art, may by having the several Lessons sentweekly to them, be as perfectly instructed as those that live in Boston."
 
1874: Institutionally sponsored distance education began in the United States in 1874 atIllinois Wesleyan University.1883: The Correspondence University of Ithaca, New York (a correspondence school)was founded in 1883.1892: The term “distance educationwas first used in a University of Wisconsin– Madisoncatalog for the 1892 school year.1906: The University of Wisconsin–Extension was founded; the first true distancelearning institution.1920: Sidney Pressey, an educational psychology professor at Ohio State University,develops the first "teaching machine."
This device offered drill and practiceexercises, and multiple choice questions.1953 TheUniversity of Houstonoffers the first televised college credit classes viaKUHT, the first public television station in the US. The live telecasts ran from 13to 15 hours each week, making up about 38% of the program schedule. Mostcourses aired at night so that students who worked during the day could watchthem. By the mid-1960s, with about one-third of the station's programmingdevoted to education, more than 100,000 semester hours had been taught onKUHT.1953-1956B. F. Skinnedevelops "programmed instruction" and an updated "teachingmachine".1957 Frank Rosenblatt invented the " perceptron" in 1957 at the Cornell AeronauticalLaboratory in an attempt to understand human memory, learning, and cognitive processes. This was the beginning of  machine learning. 1960PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations)systemdeveloped at theUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignTeaching Machines Inc, a group of psychologists produced a series of  programmed learning texts. The texts were based on the work of B.F. Skinner, breaking complicated tasks to a one-step-at-a-time activity (terminal learningobjectives). Grolier and TMI marketed Min-Max (a teaching machine) withmachine programs and programmed text books.1963Ivan SutherlanddevelopsSketchpad, the first graphical user interface for a computer, and publishes a description of it in his PhD. dissertation at MIT.The first computer for instruction is installed at Orange Coast College, California.3

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