During this period the Sultan claimed that along the West Coast their territory extendedbeyond Tapus, Barus, Sorkam, and even Tapanuli. In the East Coast, Batubara andTamiang were said to be the limits marking the Muslim-Acehan Sultanate influence(15).Almost half of the Sumatra Island was under its control until the coming of the Dutch in1873. The fact that Aceh is located in the northern part of Sumatra and sited in the easternedge of the Bay of Bengal, gave it a commanding position over the Straits of Malacca. Itproduced chaphor, sappanwood, dammar, rattan, beeswax, pepper, betel nut, some rice,as well as horses which were exported through Pedier coast.On the other hand, Aceh also imported such goods as opium, cloth, iron, gunpowder,various Indian goods and an assortment of goods from China(16). Trade was taking placeon the West Bank, the Kampong Jawa that acted as the main commercial center.Meanwhile, on the east bank where Penajong was located, traders set up shops andresidence. Five kilometers inland from the mouth of the river was the capital of AcehDarussalam, which was referred to as Banda Aceh Darussalam or Kutaraja(17),connoting abode of peace, where the Sultan’s palace was located. The Sultan was at theapex of the political system, as the source of all political, judicial and economic power.He appointed all the orangkaya (merchant-official)(18) and the Ulèëbalangs (thearistocrat/ territorial chief). Aceh was divided into many mukims (territories) that includeda numbers of mosques. The Ulèëbalang, who was originally the chief militarycommander in their respective mukim, ruled each mukim. During the reign of Nur al-Alam Nagiyat ad-Din Syah, mukim was grouped into three federations. Each federationwas controlled by a Panglima Sagi (Sago), and their title was followed by the number ofmukim that had been placed under him, such as Panglima Sagi of the XXII, XXV andXXVI mukim(Districts). Moreover, the Panglima Sagi of the XXII was the mostpowerful and was referred to as Panglima Polem.There were other mukims which were directly under the control of the Sultan and otherUlèëbalangs, while in other newly opened territory by the immigration of the Muslim-Acehan, the Sultan appointed a family member to be the head of these principalities inorder to have full control over them(19). The Geuchik (the Chief) was the leader of avillage which comprised of many meunasah(20) as the smallest community with aTeungku Imum(21)as its leader.Therefore, the cohesiveness of the Muslim community inAceh, absolutely depended on the compromise and tolerance among those TeungkuImums(22). Concerning the revenues, not all were sent to the Sultan, but they were alsoshared by the orangkaya and Ulèëbalangs, who were directly controlling the port.As the former were growing wealthy and powerful due to the economic prosperity,Sultan Iskandar Muda, began to check them. He seized their weapons, forbade them frombuilding their house of bricks and stones, and went to the extreme of executing many ofthem. In order to strengthen his power, the Sultan codified the commercial regulation(23).It was during his reign that the royal had full control over all important ports of the Westand East Coast which by then marked the zenith of the Sultanate Aceh Darussalam(24).After his death, Iskandar Muda, was succeeded by his son in-law Iskandar Thani (1636-1641) who later was succeeded subsequently by four other Queens(25), during whosereign the struggle for power became profound, leading to several attempted coups.