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Summary of Biology Definitions

Summary of Biology Definitions

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Published by IB Screwed
The complete list of all the Biology definitions that students are required to know, according to the IB Syllabus.
The complete list of all the Biology definitions that students are required to know, according to the IB Syllabus.

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Published by: IB Screwed on Aug 24, 2011
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08/09/2014

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Summary of Biology Definitions
2.4.4 - Define diffusion and osmosis
Diffusion - the passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. Osmosis - the passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.
3.2.1 - Distinguish between
organic 
 and
inorganic 
 compounds
Organic compounds are
based on carbon
 and can be
found in living things
. Exceptions
include HCO₃, CO₂ and
CO. These are classed as non-organic carbon. Three types of organic compounds widely found in living organisms are lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Inorganic compounds are any compounds that
do not fall into the category of organic compounds
.
3.6.1 - Define enzyme and active site
Enzyme - A biological catalyst made of globular protein Active Site -The region of an enzyme molecule surface where the substrate molecule binds and catalysis occurs
3.6.4 - Define denaturation
 A
structural change
 in a protein that alters its shape and results in a loss of biological properties. This can be caused by pH or temperature.
 
 
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3.7.1 - Define cell respiration
 
Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells in the form of ATP
4.1.2 - Define gene, allele and genome
Gene
 -
A gene is a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic
 
Allele
 -
An allele is a specific form of a gene, differing for other alleles by one or a few bases only. They occupy the same gene locus as the other alleles on the gene
 
Genome
-
The whole of the genetic information of an organism
 4.1.3 - Define gene mutation
A gene mutation is a change in the base sequence of an allele
4.2.2 - Define homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes in a diploid cell which contain the same sequence of genes, but are derived from different parents.
4.3.1 - Define genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, codominant alleles, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier and test cross
Genotype -
 
The alleles of an organism
 
Phenotype - The characteristics of an organism
 
Dominant Allele - An allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state
 
 
 
www.ibscrewed.org Recessive Allele - An allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state
 
Codominant Alleles - Pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote
 
Locus - The particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene
 
Homozygous - Having two identical alleles of a gene
 
Heterozygous - Having two different alleles of a gene
 
Carrier - An individual that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele
 
Test Cross - Testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive
 4.3.7 - Define sex linkage
Genes carried on only one of the sex chromosomes and which therefore show a different pattern of inheritance in crosses where the male carries the gene from where the female carries the gene
4.4.11 - Define clone
A group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from a single parent cell
5.1.1 - Define
species, habitat, population, community 
,
 ecosystem
 and
ecology 
 
Species
 -
A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
 
Habitat - The environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.

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