7.1 - DNA Structure
7.1.1 - Describe the structure of DNA, including the antiparallel strands, 3'-5' linkages andhydrogen bonding between purines and pyrimidines
DNA has a uniform diameter along its entire length due tocomplementary base pairing. The two polynucleotide chainsare
, with the polynucleotides formed around theoutside of the helix and the bases extending into the centre.The chains held together by hydrogen bonding between thebases on opposite nucleotides.There is double hydrogen bonding between A and T. On the other hand, there is triplehydrogen bonding between C and G. The purines are the nucleic bases with two rings:adenine and guanine. On the other hand, the single-ringed bases are the pyrimidines
,thymine and cytosine.
7.1.2 - Outline the structure of nucleosomes
A nucleosome consists of DNA wrapped around eight histoneproteins and held together by another histone protein. TheDNA double helix has major and minor groves on the outerdiameter, exposing chemical groups that can form hydrogenbonds. These groups are bonded to positively-chargedproteins called
, forming two loops around them.DNA is wound around and bonded to eight histones and secured by the H1 linker protein,holding the DNA in place. This structure allows the long DNA molecules on the nucleus to becondensed into a much smaller space. T
ogether, the histones form ‘
’. However, there
are also other proteins present in the chromosomes, including the enzymes for replicationand transcription.