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Chemistry Form 4 Chapter 9

Chemistry Form 4 Chapter 9

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Published by: Mohd Ikmal Bin Asmuni on Aug 24, 2011
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[MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY]
 
September 20, 2010IKMAL10 Page 1
MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES ININDUSTRY
Sulphuric acidAmmoniaSynthetic polymersGlass and CeramicsAlloysComposite Materials
CONCEPT MAP
MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY 
OBJECT
IV
E
:1.
 
Understanding the manufactured of sulphuric acid.2.
 
Synthesis the manufacture of ammonia and its salts.3.
 
Understands alloys.4.
 
Ev
aluate the uses of synthetic polymers.5.
 
Apply the uses of glass and ceramics.6.
 
Ev
aluate the uses of composite materials.
 
[MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY]
 
September 20, 2010IKMAL10 Page 2
Sulphuric Acid
Uses of Sulphuric Acid
Sulphuric acid is
v
ery important industrially, and has many uses including:a.
 
T
he production of fertilisers such as ammonium sulphate, potassium sulphate, calciumsuperphosphate (
C
a(H<2P
O
4)2), etc.; these are straight fertilisers, as they supply one of the important elements of nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium (NPK);b.
 
T
he manufacture of non-soapy detergents: modern detergents are organic compounds'sulphonated' with concentrated sulphuric acid;c.
 
T
he making of artificial silks like rayon: here, the fine threads in the alkaline cellulosesolution are neutralised by passing them through a bath of sulphuric acid;d.
 
T
he cleaning of metals by remo
v
ing the surface oxide coating: this is called pickling andis important in preparing articles for electroplating.e.
 
Its use as an electrolyte inside batteries for cars: most car batteries are made up of leadplates in a sulphuric acid electrolyte; occasionally, the electrolyte needs to be 'toppedup' with distilled water ; this is because small amounts of hydrogen and oxygen gasesare gi
v
en off by the chemical changes inside the battery, and therefore the sulphuricacid loses water and becomes too concentrated ; in the manufacture of drugs, paints,dyes and many other chemicals .
Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid: The Contact Process
y
 
T
he large-scale manufacture of this acid is extremely important as it is the mostcommon acid used in industry, with o
v
er 1 000 million metric tonnes being producedannually.
y
 
It is manufactured by the
C
ontact Process.
Stage 1
y
 
C
ombustion of Sulphur sulphur + oxygen sulphur dioxide
S (s) + O
2
(g) ---> SO
2
(g) or
y
 
Heating of metal sulphide such as lead(II) sulphide
2PbS(s) + 3O
2
(g) ---> 2PbO(s) + 2SO
2
(g)
y
 
or
C
ombustion of hiydrogen sulphide
2H2S(g) + 3O
2
(g) ---> 2SO
2
(g) + 2H2O(ce)
 
[MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY]
 
September 20, 2010IKMAL10 Page 3
T
he raw materials are sulphur and air (oxygen). Sulphur dioxide is produced by burning eithersulphur or ores which contain sulphur.
Purification of sulphur dioxide
1.
 
T
he sulphur dioxide is then purified, by remo
v
ing impurities like arsenic compounds whichwould otherwise poison the catalyst.2.
 
It is then passed through an electrostatic dust precipitator, which, as its name implies,charges dust particles which are then remo
v
ed by being attracted to oppositely chargedplates.
Stage 2
F
ormation of Sulphur trioxide sulphur dioxide + oxygen ---> sulphur trioxide 2S
O
2
(g) +
O
2
(g) ---> 2S
O
3
(g)
C
atalyst:
v
anadium(V) oxide
T
emperature: 450°
C
 Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres
y
 
Sulphur dioxide and air are then washed, dried and passed o
v
er a
v
anadium(V) oxide catalyst at450°
C
and 2-3 atmospheres.
y
 
T
he reaction is re
v
ersible but at these temperatures and pressures, 98% con
v
ersion to sulphurtrioxide is achie
v
ed:
y
 
T
his reaction is exothermic, which means it fa
v
ours a low temperature for high con
v
ersion tosulphur trioxide.
Stage 3
 
F
ormation of oleum H
2
S
2
O
7
 sulphur trioxide + concentrated sulphuric acid ¾¾®oleum
SO
3
(g) + H
2
SO
4
(aq) ---> H
2
S
2
O
7
(l)
T
he next step is to dissol
v
e the sulphur trioxide produced in concentrated sulphuric acid, toform oleum, or fuming sulphuric acid.Stage 4
F
ormation of Sulphuric acid
O
leum + water ---> sulphuric acid
H
2
S
2
0
7
(1) + H
2
O (1) ---> 2H
2
SO
4
(aq)
T
his oleum is then diluted with water to the required strength of acid:

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