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Chemistry Form 4 Chapter 9

Chemistry Form 4 Chapter 9

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Published by: Mohd Ikmal Bin Asmuni on Aug 25, 2011
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[MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY]
 
September 20, 2010
IKMAL’10
 Page 1
MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES ININDUSTRY
Sulphuric acidAmmoniaSynthetic polymersGlass and CeramicsAlloysComposite Materials
CONCEPT MAP
MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY 
OBJECTIVE :1.
 
Understanding the manufactured of sulphuric acid.2.
 
Synthesis the manufacture of ammonia and its salts.3.
 
Understands alloys.4.
 
Evaluate the uses of synthetic polymers.5.
 
Apply the uses of glass and ceramics.6.
 
Evaluate the uses of composite materials.
 
[MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY]
 
September 20, 2010
IKMAL’10
 Page 2
Sulphuric Acid
Uses of Sulphuric Acid
Sulphuric acid is very important industrially, and has many uses including:a.
 
The production of fertilisers such as ammonium sulphate, potassium sulphate, calciumsuperphosphate (Ca(H<2PO4)2), etc.; these are straight fertilisers, as they supply one of the important elements of nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium (NPK);b.
 
The manufacture of non-soapy detergents: modern detergents are organic compounds'sulphonated' with concentrated sulphuric acid;c.
 
The making of artificial silks like rayon: here, the fine threads in the alkaline cellulosesolution are neutralised by passing them through a bath of sulphuric acid;d.
 
The cleaning of metals by removing the surface oxide coating: this is called pickling andis important in preparing articles for electroplating.e.
 
Its use as an electrolyte inside batteries for cars: most car batteries are made up of leadplates in a sulphuric acid electrolyte; occasionally, the electrolyte needs to be 'toppedup' with distilled water ; this is because small amounts of hydrogen and oxygen gasesare given off by the chemical changes inside the battery, and therefore the sulphuricacid loses water and becomes too concentrated ; in the manufacture of drugs, paints,dyes and many other chemicals .
Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid: The Contact Process
 
The large-scale manufacture of this acid is extremely important as it is the mostcommon acid used in industry, with over 1 000 million metric tonnes being producedannually.
 
It is manufactured by the Contact Process.
Stage 1
 
Combustion of Sulphur sulphur + oxygen sulphur dioxide
S (s) + O
2
(g) ---> SO
2
(g) or
 
Heating of metal sulphide such as lead(II) sulphide
2PbS(s) + 3O
2
(g) ---> 2PbO(s) + 2SO
2
(g)
 
or Combustion of hiydrogen sulphide
2H2S(g) + 3O
2
(g) ---> 2SO
2
(g) + 2H2O(ce)
 
[MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY]
 
September 20, 2010
IKMAL’10
 Page 3The raw materials are sulphur and air (oxygen). Sulphur dioxide is produced by burning eithersulphur or ores which contain sulphur.
Purification of sulphur dioxide
1.
 
The sulphur dioxide is then purified, by removing impurities like arsenic compounds whichwould otherwise poison the catalyst.2.
 
It is then passed through an electrostatic dust precipitator, which, as its name implies,charges dust particles which are then removed by being attracted to oppositely chargedplates.
Stage 2
Formation of Sulphur trioxide sulphur dioxide + oxygen ---> sulphur trioxide 2SO
2
(g) + O
2
(g) ---> 2SO
3
(g)Catalyst: vanadium(V) oxideTemperature: 450°CPressure: 2-3 atmospheres
 
Sulphur dioxide and air are then washed, dried and passed over a vanadium(V) oxide catalyst at450°C and 2-3 atmospheres.
 
The reaction is reversible but at these temperatures and pressures, 98% conversion to sulphurtrioxide is achieved:
 
This reaction is exothermic, which means it favours a low temperature for high conversion tosulphur trioxide.
Stage 3
 Formation of oleum H
2
S
2
O
7
 sulphur trioxide + concentrated sulphuric acid ¾¾®oleum
SO
3
(g) + H
2
SO
4
(aq) ---> H
2
S
2
O
7
(l)
The next step is to dissolve the sulphur trioxide produced in concentrated sulphuric acid, toform oleum, or fuming sulphuric acid.Stage 4Formation of Sulphuric acid Oleum + water ---> sulphuric acid
H
2
S
2
0
7
(1) + H
2
O (1) ---> 2H
2
SO
4
(aq)
This oleum is then diluted with water to the required strength of acid:

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