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Ch1_Intro

Ch1_Intro

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Published by: Phani Arya on Aug 25, 2011
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DatabaseManagementSystems3ed,R. Ramakrishnan andJ.Gehrke 1
DatabaseManagementSystemsChapter1
Instructor: RaghuRamakrishnanraghu@cs.wisc.edu
DatabaseManagementSystems3ed,R. Ramakrishnan andJ.Gehrke 2
WhatIsaDBMS?
 
Averylarge,integratedcollectionofdata.
 
Modelsreal-world
enterprise.
¡ 
Entities(e.g.,students,courses)
¡ 
Relationships(e.g.,MadonnaistakingCS564)
 
A
DatabaseManagementSystem(DBMS)
isasoftwarepackagedesignedtostoreandmanagedatabases.
 
DatabaseManagementSystems3ed,R. Ramakrishnan andJ.Gehrke 3
Filesvs.DBMS
 
Applicationmuststagelargedatasets betweenmainmemoryandsecondarystorage(e.g.,buffering,page-orientedaccess,32-bitaddressing,etc.)
 
Specialcodefordifferentqueries
 
Mustprotectdatafrominconsistencyduetomultipleconcurrentusers
 
Crashrecovery
 
Securityandaccesscontrol
 
DatabaseManagementSystems3ed,R. Ramakrishnan andJ.Gehrke 4
WhyUseaDBMS?
 
Dataindependenceandefficientaccess.
 
Reducedapplicationdevelopmenttime.
 
Dataintegrityandsecurity.
 
Uniformdataadministration.
 
Concurrentaccess,recoveryfromcrashes.
DatabaseManagementSystems3ed,R. Ramakrishnan andJ.Gehrke 5
WhyStudyDatabases??
 
Shiftfrom
computation
to
information
¡ 
atthe“lowend”:scrambleto webspace (amess!)
¡ 
atthe“highend”:scientificapplications
 
Datasetsincreasingindiversityandvolume.
¡ 
Digitallibraries,interactivevideo,HumanGenomeproject,EOSproject
¡ 
...needforDBMSexploding
 
DBMSencompassesmostofCS
¡ 
OS,languages,theory,“A”I,multimedia,logic
?
 
DatabaseManagementSystems3ed,R. Ramakrishnan andJ.Gehrke 6
DataModels
 
A
datamodel
isacollectionofconceptsfordescribingdata.
 
A
schema
isadescriptionofaparticularcollectionofdata,usingtheagivendatamodel.
 
The
relationalmodelofdata
isthemostwidelyusedmodeltoday.
¡ 
Mainconcept:
relation
,basicallyatablewithrowsandcolumns.
¡ 
Everyrelationhasa
schema
,whichdescribesthecolumns,orfields.
 
DatabaseManagementSystems3ed,R. Ramakrishnan andJ.Gehrke 7
LevelsofAbstraction
¢ 
Many
views
,single
conceptual(logical)schema
and
 physicalschema
.
£ 
Viewsdescribehowusersseethedata.
£ 
Conceptualschemadefineslogicalstructure
£ 
Physicalschemadescribesthefilesandindexesused.
*
SchemasaredefinedusingDDL;dataismodified/queriedusingDML
.
PhysicalSchemaConceptualSchemaView1 View2 View3
 
DatabaseManagementSystems3ed,R. Ramakrishnan andJ.Gehrke 8
Example:UniversityDatabase
 
Conceptualschema:
¡ 
Students(sid:string,name:string,login:string,age:integer, gpa:real)
¡ 
Courses(cid:string, cname:string,credits:integer)
¡ 
Enrolled(sid:string,cid:string,grade:string)
 
Physicalschema:
¡ 
Relationsstoredasunorderedfiles.
¡ 
IndexonfirstcolumnofStudents.
 
ExternalSchema(View):
¡ 
Course_info(cid:string,enrollment:integer)
DatabaseManagementSystems3ed,R. Ramakrishnan andJ.Gehrke 9
DataIndependence*
 
Applicationsinsulatedfromhowdataisstructuredandstored.
 
Logicaldataindependence
:Protectionfromchangesin
logical
structureofdata.
 
Physicaldataindependence
:Protectionfromchangesin
 physical
structureofdata.
*
OneofthemostimportantbenefitsofusingaDBMS!

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