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A Country Study - Israel

A Country Study - Israel

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Published by Able Rasman

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Published by: Able Rasman on Aug 25, 2011
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Israel, a country study
Federal Research Division
 
Table of Contents
Israel, a country study........................................................................................................................................1
Federal Research Division.......................................................................................................................1Foreword..................................................................................................................................................5Preface......................................................................................................................................................5GEOGRAPHY.........................................................................................................................................6ECONOMY.............................................................................................................................................6GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS.........................................................................................................7Introduction..............................................................................................................................................7ISRAEL.................................................................................................................................................17Foreword................................................................................................................................................17Acknowledgments..................................................................................................................................17Preface....................................................................................................................................................18COUNTRY PROFILE...........................................................................................................................19GEOGRAPHY.......................................................................................................................................19SOCIETY...............................................................................................................................................19ECONOMY...........................................................................................................................................19TRANSPORTATION ANDCOMMUNICATIONS............................................................................20GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS.......................................................................................................20NATIONAL SECURITY......................................................................................................................21Introduction............................................................................................................................................22CHAPTER 1. Historical Setting............................................................................................................31ANCIENT ISRAEL...............................................................................................................................34HELLENISM AND THE ROMANCONQUEST................................................................................37PALESTINE BETWEEN THE ROMANS AND MODERN TIMES..................................................38ORIGINS OF ZIONISM........................................................................................................................40Zionist Precursors..................................................................................................................................41Political Zionism....................................................................................................................................42Cultural Zionism....................................................................................................................................44Labor Zionism........................................................................................................................................44Revisionist Zionism...............................................................................................................................46EVENTS IN PALESTINE, 1908−48....................................................................................................46World War I: Diplomacy and Intrigue...................................................................................................47The Arab Community During the Mandate...........................................................................................50The Jewish Community underthe Mandate..........................................................................................51The PalestinianRevolt, 1936−39...........................................................................................................54World War II and Zionism.....................................................................................................................55The Holocaust........................................................................................................................................56Prelude to Statehood..............................................................................................................................57PROBLEMS OFTHE NEW STATE, 1948−67....................................................................................59Ingathering of the Exiles........................................................................................................................59Israeli Arabs, Arab Land, and Arab Refugees.......................................................................................60The Emergenceof the IDF.....................................................................................................................621967 AND AFTERWARD....................................................................................................................63The War of Attrition..............................................................................................................................65The October 1973 War...........................................................................................................................66The Decline of the Labor Party..............................................................................................................68Oriental Jews..........................................................................................................................................68THE BEGIN ERA..................................................................................................................................69
Israel, a country studyi
 
Table of Contents
Israel, a country study
The Peace Process..................................................................................................................................69The Occupied Territories.......................................................................................................................71Israeli Action inLebanon, 1978−82......................................................................................................73CHAPTER 2. The Society and Its Environment...................................................................................75GEOGRAPHY.......................................................................................................................................76Topography............................................................................................................................................77Climate...................................................................................................................................................78POPULATION......................................................................................................................................78SOCIAL STRUCTURE.........................................................................................................................80Varieties of Israeli Judaism....................................................................................................................81Orthodox Judaism..................................................................................................................................81Non−OrthodoxJudaism.........................................................................................................................82The Role of Judaism..............................................................................................................................82Judaism, Civil Religion, and the “New Zionism”.................................................................................83Religious Institutions.............................................................................................................................85The “Who Is a Jew?” Controversy.........................................................................................................87The Orthodox−Secular Cleavage...........................................................................................................90Jewish Ethnic Groups............................................................................................................................91The Ashkenazi−Oriental Distinction.....................................................................................................91The Second Israel...................................................................................................................................92Ethnicity and Social Class.....................................................................................................................93Minority Groups....................................................................................................................................95The Druzes.............................................................................................................................................97The Arab−Jewish Cleavage...................................................................................................................98Distinctive Social Institutions................................................................................................................99The Histadrut.........................................................................................................................................99Kibbutz and Moshav............................................................................................................................100The Ulpan andMerkaz Klita................................................................................................................101EDUCATION......................................................................................................................................101Higher Education.................................................................................................................................103Youth Movements and Organizations.................................................................................................103HEALTH..............................................................................................................................................104WELFARE...........................................................................................................................................104CHAPTER 3. The Economy................................................................................................................106OVERVIEW OF THE 1948−72 PERIOD...........................................................................................106ECONOMIC GROWTH AND STRUCTURALCHANGE...............................................................107Slowdown of Economic Growth..........................................................................................................108Changes in Investment Patterns...........................................................................................................109Changes in Industrial Structure............................................................................................................110Changes in Labor Force.......................................................................................................................110THE PUBLIC SECTOR......................................................................................................................111Government Budget.............................................................................................................................111Provision of Civilian Services.............................................................................................................111Provision of Def ense Services.............................................................................................................112Taxation...............................................................................................................................................113INDUSTRY.........................................................................................................................................113Electronics............................................................................................................................................114
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