Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
32Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
3.1 - Chemical Elements and Water

3.1 - Chemical Elements and Water

Ratings: (0)|Views: 3,230|Likes:
Published by IB Screwed
IB Biology notes covering chemical elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, elements needed by living organisms, including sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, iron and sodium, their roles, structure of water molecules, polarity and hydrogen bonds, thermal, cohesive and solvent properties of water, and water as a coolant, medium for metabolic reactions and transport medium.
IB Biology notes covering chemical elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, elements needed by living organisms, including sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, iron and sodium, their roles, structure of water molecules, polarity and hydrogen bonds, thermal, cohesive and solvent properties of water, and water as a coolant, medium for metabolic reactions and transport medium.

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: IB Screwed on Aug 25, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/09/2014

pdf

text

original

 
 www.ibscrewed.org/ 
3.1
 –
 Chemical Elements and Water
3.1.1 - State that the most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
The most common elements in living things are carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O).
Carbon
 is the most important element to life. It is a macronutrient, and basically our entire body is made up of it. It acts as a basic building block, which can be attached to form chains or to other elements. Carbon is essential for the big molecules to be built. They are based around chains of carbon atoms. Without them, we would be a pile of loose atoms with no way of being built into a person.
Hydrogen
 is also a macronutrient. It forms part of water, which we would die within a few days if we didn't get any. Water is very important, with around 75% of our bodies (by weight) made up of it. It dissolves other important substances and can transport them. Important reactions also take place in water. Hydrogen bonds are what give water these amazing attributes. Hydrogen is almost always bonded to the carbon our bodies are made of. Also, crucial substances (i.e. Stomach acid - HCl) contain hydrogen. It is essential to life.
Oxygen
 is another macronutrient. It is needed by plants as well as humans. It forms a part of the water compound, which, of course, is essential to life. This versatile element is the single most important substance to life.
Nitrogen
 is another important element. It too is a macronutrient, and plays a role in digestion and growth. 80% of the air we breathe is made up of nitrogen, however it is in the wrong form, so we cannot use it. Instead, we get it from our food. It is extracted early to aid us in growth. Nitrogen is especially useful during pregnancy, as it is necessary for foetus development. Nitrogen is one of the three main elements that make plant life possible.
 
 www.ibscrewed.org/ 
3.1.2 - State that a variety of other elements are needed by living organisms, including sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, iron and sodium
Many other elements are necessary for the survival of living organisms. These include sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, iron and sodium.
3.1.3 - State one role of each of the elements mentioned above Sulfur
 is also needed by living organisms. For example, it is an important element in some amino acids. It protects our cells from environmental hazards like pollution and radiation, as well as helping our liver to function properly. It is important for making blood clots, and keeps our skin supple and elastic.
Calcium
 is important, and can be found in our bones and teeth. This macronutrient is also important for other things like muscle growth, and electrical impulses in your brain. It maintains proper blood pressure and makes blood clot when you are cut. Calcium deficiency can lead to muscle spasms, leg cramps and brittle bones.
Iron
 is found in haemoglobin, the part of our blood that carries oxygen. Hence, an iron deficiency would lead to fatigue and shortened attention span. This may lead to iron deficiency anaemia. It has many functions such as making tendons and ligaments, as well as controlling chemicals in our brains. It is needed for maintaining a healthy immune system.
Sodium
 is needed for nerve impulses to be sent. It also forms an important part of blood plasma, and without we cannot get the nutrients we need to survive. It maintains the correct amount of water in our blood. Our bodies therefore have various mechanisms to keep our sodium levels right, such as becoming thirsty when we have a lot of salt to dilute it and dispose of the excess.
 
 www.ibscrewed.org/ 
Phosphorus
 is found in membrane structures, an integral part of the cell. It the most abundant mineral in our body, second only to calcium. It is needed for the healthy formation of bones and teeth, as well as processing food. It is part of our energy storage system. Contractions of the heart, normal cell growth and repair are all dependent of phosphorus. Deficiency leads to lowered energy levels and decreased attention span. Phosphorus is also one of the three main elements that make plant life possible. High intake from processed foods, etc, may lead to osteoporosis.
3.1.4 - Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of water molecules to show their polarity and hydrogen bond formation
The hydrogen atoms in a water molecule have a slight positive charge, and the oxygen atoms have a slight negative charge. The give water molecule two poles, which is called polarity. Hydrogen bonds can form between the positive and negative poles of the molecules. In liquid water, many bonds will form to give the water its properties and making it useful for living organisms.

Activity (32)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
IB Screwed added this note
The new revision has better image quality once downloaded.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Nur Raihan liked this
carolinesheehey liked this
Henry Poon liked this
Vanessa Tran liked this
Sarah Ghafoor liked this
Nur Raihan liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->