Models and assumptions are aligned with the NGMN re-commendations in . Table II contains a brief summary. Theevaluation methodology is based on time-dynamic, multi-cellsystem simulations.V.
This section presents downlink and uplink user throughputand spectrum efficiency for a selection of system configura-tions and scenarios. More specifically, the following subsec-tions cover (A) baseline configurations with 2x2 and 1x2 an-tenna configurations, (B) more advanced multi-antenna confi-gurations, and (C) results for file transfer (non-full buffer)traffic models.
LTE and Mobile WiMAX – Baseline Scenario
Downlink user throughput and spectrum efficiency figuresfor LTE FDD, LTE TDD, and Mobile WiMAX are summa-rized in Fig. 1. Note that in this special case, as there are 10full-buffer users per sector in average, and the spectrum allo-cation is 10MHz, the spectrum efficiency, measured in bps/Hz/sector, and the average user throughput, measured inMbps, are the same. For the TDD systems, the spectrum effi-ciency is calculated by down-scaling the denominator (system bandwidth) with the relative time utilization in the direction inquestion (measured in data symbols). Distributions of user throughput normalized with spectrum allocation and TDDutilization are also presented.It is seen that LTE is some 60% better than Mobile WiMAXin the average metrics, and about a factor two better in cell-edge performance. The reasons for these differences are acombination of the distinctive features presented in Table I.
(slogan used in Fig. 1-2)
LTE Mobile WiMAX wave 2 Performance impactMultiple access
OFDM in DL,DFT-spread OFDM in ULOFDM in DL and UL DFT-spread OFDM reduces the peak-to-average power ratio and reduces terminal complexity,requires one-tap equalizer in base station receiver Uplink power control
Fractional pathloss compensa-tionFull pathloss compensation Fractional pathloss compensation enables flexibletrade off between average and cell-edge data ratesScheduling
Channel dependent in timeand frequency domainChannel dependent in timedomainAccess to the frequency domain yields larger scheduling gainsMIMO scheme
Horizontal encoding (multiplecodewords), closed loop with precodingVertical encoding (singlecodeword)Horizontal encoding enables per-stream link adaptation and successive interference cancella-tion (SIC) receiversModulation and cod-ing scheme granulari-ty
Fine granularity(1-2dB apart)Coarse granularity(2-3dB apart)Finer granularity enables better link adaptation precision
Hybrid ARQ II
Incremental redundancy Chase combining Incremental redundancy is more efficient(lower SNR required for given error rate)Frame duration
1ms subframes 5ms frames Shorter subframes yield lower user planedelay and reduced channel quality feedback delaysOverhead / controlchannel efficiency
(OH / CCH eff)
Relatively low OH (whilecontrol channels arerobust)Relatively high OH Lower overhead improves performance
Parameter ValueTraffic Model a) Full buffer (10 users per sector) or b) File transfer (100KB fixed file size) withvariable loadUser location Uniform distributionSite-to-site distance 500mCarrier frequency 2.0GHzCarrier bandwidth 10MHzDistance-dependent pathlossL = I + 37.6·log
(R) + P, R in km, I = 128.1 for 2GHz, P = 20dB penetration lossLognormal shadowing8dB std dev, 50m correlation distance, 0.5 corre-lation between sitesChannel model3GPP SCM, Urban Macro High Spread (15 deg),extended to 10MHzTerminal speed 3km/hBS / Terminal power 46dBm / 23dBmAntenna configura-tionsBS: 2-4 transmit and receiveTerminal: 1 transmit, 2-4 receiveScheduler LTE: DL: Proportional fair in time and fre-quency, UL: Quality-based FDMWiMAX: DL: Proportional fair in time domain,UL: FDMMIMOLTE: Codebook-based pre-coded adaptive rank MIMOWiMAX: Dynamic switching between spatialmultiplexing MIMO and STCPower controlLTE: Open loop with fractional pathloss com- pensation (
=0.8), SNR target 10dB at cell edgeWiMAX: Open loop, SNR target 15dB (full pathloss compensation)Receiver type LTE: MMSE with SIC in DLWiMAX: MMSETDD asymmetry LTE: 4:3, WiMAX: 22:15