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11.4 - Reproduction

11.4 - Reproduction

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Published by IB Screwed
IB Biology notes on reproduction
IB Biology notes on reproduction

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: IB Screwed on Aug 25, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/20/2014

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11.4
 –
 Reproduction
11.4.1 - Annotate a light micrograph of testis tissue to show the location and function of interstitial cell (Leydig cells), germinal epithelium cells, developing spermatozoa and Sertoli cells
 
11.4.2 - Outline the processes involved in spermatogenesis within the testis, including mitosis, cell growth, the two divisions or meiosis and cell differentiation
In the testes of the male embryo, the
primordial germ cells
 will differentiate to form the spermatogonia. These are still diploid cells. Endless mitosis of the germinal epithelium cells produces many more spermatogonia which are found in the outer wall of the
seminiferous tubule
. This is a process that continues into adulthood, allowing for the continuous production of sperm. These diploid cells grow larger to become
primary spermatocytes
 (2
n
) They will then enter meiosis I, dividing to become
secondary spermatocytes
 (2
n
) Following this, they enter meiosis II, during which they will divide to become two
spermatids
 (
n
), making a total of four spermatids produced from each germinal epithelium cell. The spermatids are then nurtured by the
Sertoli cells
 to develop and differentiate into
 spermatozoa
(
n
) The sperm then detach from the Sertoli cells. The fluid of the seminiferous tubule carries them out of the testis and into the
epididymis
. The final product of spermatogenesis is four sperm cells from each germinal epithelium cell.
 
Differentiation of primordial germ cellsRepeated mitosisGrow to become primary spermatocytesMeiosis I to become secondary spermatocytesMeiosis II to produce two spermatidsThe Sertoli cells nurture the spermatids to become spermatozoaDetach and leave the testis
 
11.4.3 - State the role of LH, testosterone and FSH in spermatogenesis Luteinising Hormone
 
 –
 Secreted from the pituitary gland, and stimulates the secretion of testosterone by the testes.
Testosterone
 
 –
 Secreted from the interstitial cells in the testes. It stimulates the development of secondary spermatocytes into mature sperm.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
 
 –
 This is secreted from the pituitary gland. It stimulates the primary spermatocytes to undergo meiosis I, forming secondary spermatocytes.

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